Introduction: Underdevelopment takes place when resources are not used to their full socio-economic potential, with the result that local or regional development is slower in most cases than it should be. Furthermore, it results from the complex interplay of internal and external factors that allow less developed countries only a lop-sided development progression. Underdeveloped nations are characterized by a wide disparity between their rich and poor populations, and an unhealthy balance of trade. According to J.
H Alder, underdevelopment refers to a situation where the per pita income is low and it is possible to increase it by utilizing the resources of the country more properly. He also emphasized that, such an economy is characterized by a viscous circle of poverty (persistent poverty) due to low savings, low investment, low capital accumulation and then low incomes among others. On the other hands, some scholars have interpreted the term underdevelopment to mean “the process in which less developed countries are continuously losing resources to the developed countries through unequal exchange, brain drain”.
Uganda has witnessed many civil arc, this include; military coups like the 1971 by Main against Boot, economic cranks like the 1972 economic war, clan and tribal conflicts among others. All these are the insight factors to the continuous underdevelopment of Uganda. In inert shell, most Africans countries are Olds including Uganda and are underdeveloped due to internal and external factors which are associated with political, social, economics and cultural regimes of the country, and these factors if not addressed, shall lead to continuous underdevelopment of Uganda.
Uganda has continuously experienced underdevelopment due to economical, social, political and cultural factors which includes the following; High population growth rate: The current population of Uganda stands at approximately 33 million people which shows an increasing trend since 2001 to date. In Uganda, over 60% of the population are dependence on the working class and the 60% comprises of the elderly and the young hence low levels of investment since it would be difficult to save for investment a factor leading to continuous underdevelopment in Uganda.
Bribery, graft and corruption: This evil is pep rooted in our country Uganda and in most of the developing countries. All the money meant for poverty eradication is being embezzled by the top officials in the government. For example the money scandal in the MOM, the gazing money scandal. The money swindled by the officials in the MOM was meant for the PREP in Northern Uganda to rehabilitate people from all the torment they had gone through during the insurgency.
Much as some official were arrested detained and Jailed for misused, fuddling and corrupting public funds which was meant for the development of the economy, it has made it difficult to institutionalized to the extent hat officials at the local government feel they have little choice but to take part in bribery, graft, and corruption which has drained the country’s resources hence a factor leading to continuous underdevelopment in the country. Health and diseases: Development of a country requires healthy population. But in Uganda, poor health has affected Agenda’s economic development for instance, maternal mortality rate.
Even recently Mullah hospital, had a debts of water bills of six (6) billions which they owed National Water and Sewerage Cooperation ( C) and this NAS prompted the NCSC to cut off the water and the patients are being affected for example Children Nutritional ward were there was outbreak of diarrhea and even the all hospital is affected by this. These diseases makes it difficult for people to work and create a rise in the cycle. This is because when you are sick and due to lack of strength, you can’t work and without work there is no development, so this factor is contributing to continuous underdevelopment in Uganda today.
Poor infrastructural development: The infrastructures in terms of roads, railways, hospitals, airports in Uganda are poorly developed this makes it difficult to transport and access most of the natural resources. There are few feeder roads, yet in bad shape to town centers and trading centers for the locals to access quality market for their products hence they end up selling agricultural outputs door to door which is far much below the market price a factor leading to low income and this discourage development, thus contributing to continuous underdevelopment in Uganda.
Unequal income distribution: In Uganda, the economic gap between the very rich and the very poor is widening every day. Today the little income is in the hands of the few individuals . Hence most of the people are living on income below the poverty line. This is resulting into low purchasing power of the majority who are absolutely poor and this cannot necessitate development, hence a factor leading to the continuous underdevelopment in Uganda.
Low level of technological development: Uganda has a low level of technological development due to limited inventions and innovations in the economy which leads to limited use of scientific knowledge in production. This reduces the quality and quantity of the output produced by the country, hence reducing income which could be use for developing a country and its a factor contributing to continuous underdevelopment in the country. Political instabilities and insecurity: For a country to develop, it needs successful development strategies which requires the existence of stable government.
But its the contrary here in Uganda, the country has been faced with political instabilities for number of years for example, the 1971 coup by Main against Boot, the Kafka crisis of Began and to date the LIRA war. This has scared away most of potential investors who wanted to put up their investment in Uganda. This has affected the development in the whole of the northern region particularly School sub- region of Gull, Anyway, Padre, Amour, Kiting, Alamo and at large Uganda as a whole, hence a factor for continuous underdevelopment of Uganda.
Balance of payment (BOP) problems: Due to low production of export crops and reliance on agriculture, Uganda is experiencing Balance Of Payment deficits year after year which are financed by borrowing, rescheduling debts and the debts crisis is a big problem to Olds like Uganda, this is a factor responsible for continuous underdevelopment in the country. Low rate of capital accumulation: Agenda’s capital informs of building equipments and a machine is inadequate to exploit the existing resources.
This leaves most of the natural resources unexploited, yet if this natural resources were fully utilized leads to development of a country, hence a factor contributing to Agenda’s underdevelopment. Inappropriate education system: A good system of education is a necessary component of any successful development strategy. The wrong education curriculum is an enormous burden to development. Agenda’s education system is more theoretical and less practical. This does not give student or graduates skills tort job creation but produces more of Job seekers.
Now and even tomorrow there are any labor forces in the Job market and yet there is inadequate vacancies to be filled by these graduates and this has increased unemployment level due to high competition leading to under utilization of human resources thus continuous underdevelopment in Uganda. Viscous circle of poverty: The level of poverty in viscous, this is due to low incomes which leads to low saving, low investment and low capital accumulation. No saving means no investment, because you can not invest without any savings hence no development, hence a factor leading to continuous underdevelopment of Uganda.
Poor land tenure system: The and system in Uganda is very poor such that acquiring land for investment and productive activities is also poor. Land is not equally distributed among poor people who can’t use them for investment purposes hence leaving other resources unexploited and even the poor individuals are left without land which is a factor contributing to continuous underdevelopment in the country. Social and cultural backwardness within the population: The persistence backward beliefs and norms of Uganda has hindered development of the country.
This backwardness is due to low level of education, For example the division of labor among men and women tends to disavow women, inheritance of land has led to land fragmentation, a big number (rather than quality) of women and children is looked at as a sign of wealth in some societies for example in Karamazov region. Some beliefs and norms include; religious indifference, conservatism and resistance to change, superstitious belief, among others. Over dependency on primary products: Uganda as a country over depends on the primary agricultural products which are poor qualities compared to the tertiary industries in the foreign markets.
This creates too much competition and due to this, the country face very low prices and so it will inject low foreign exchange hence making it difficult for the country to access foreign markets. Hence leading to underdevelopment of the country. Unemployment: this is unimaginable, the rate of unemployment is very high in Uganda, this is all because of low production, seasonal variation in economic activities, rural- urban migration, low rate of Job creation, discrimination in the labor markets. Hence a factor responsible for the continuous underdevelopment in the country.