Schiffmann – Consumer Behaviour

Define motivation by using a figure to explain the motivation process 2. Discuss the statement “marketers don ;t create needs; needs pro-exist marketers. ” Can marketing efforts change consumers’ needs? Why or why not? Can marketing efforts arouse consumer needs? If yes, how? 1 Marketers do not create needs, though in some instances they make consumers more keenly aware of unfelt needs. The tact that many new products take illustrates that marketers often do not recognize or understatements needs and that they cannot create a need for products.

On the other hand, there are countless examples of products that have succeeded in thematically because they fulfill consumer needs. 2 Marketing efforts are generally not designed to change consumer needs but to create or trigger “wants” for products/services that countermeasures then purchase to satisfy needs that already exist. Market-reincorporates use consumer research to uncover relevant needs, translate thiamine “wants” by designing appropriate products and services, and position 3. Explain two types of goal by giving an example. Eating fruits is healthy for your body.

Lead Goals = eating 5 servings of fruits and vegetables will lead me to the bigger goal. Lag Goals = the easy to measure, end goal that lags behind the total results of the smaller goals all added together. When I step on the scales I will know if I have, or have not reached the goal. LAG Goals are: They are easy to measure. You either make it or you don’t. Then often are associated with The Big Goal (hence the term “Big Hairy Audacious Goal … Or BAG) They tend to extend out over a longer period of time. They are often seen as “Team” or “Organization” goals. LEAD Goals are:

Predictable and Influence. They lead to the bigger, LAG goal. The question is asked, “what two or three things can you do to move you toward the bigger goal? ” Shorter term, usually a week or less in nature. These are often the efforts of an individual, and sometimes a Team. Chiffon’s – Consumer Behavior – Chapter 4&5 By garnering 4 Explain two types tot motives by giving examples tot the advertisement used Informational Advertising Presumably every advertisement includes some element of information, be it nothing more than the identity of the advertised brand.

We define an informational advertisement, however, as one which provides consumers with factual (I. E. , presumably verifiable), relevant brand data in a clear and logical manner such that they have greater confidence in their ability to assess the merits of buying the brand after having seen the advertisement. An important aspect of this definition is that an advertisement can be designed with the intention of providing information, but it does not become an informational ad unless it is perceived as such by consumers.

Rather than residing wholly within the advertisement, this definition resides in the consumers’ perceptions of the ad’s contents. Transformational Advertising A transformational advertisement is one which associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement. Thus, advertisements in this category “transform” the experience of using the brand by endowing this use with a particular experience that is different from that of using any similar brand.

It is the advertisement itself which links the brand with the capacity to provide the consumer tit an experience that is different from the consumption experience that would normally be expected to occur without exposure to the advertisement. 5. Explain the “Moscow Hierarchy of Needs. What are three types of products related to more than one level of Measles Hierarchy of Needs. Motivation theory which suggests five interdependent levels of basic human needs (motivators) that must be satisfied in a strict sequence starting with the lowest level.

Physiological needs for survival (to stay alive and reproduce) and security (to feel safe) are the most fundamental and most pressing needs. They are followed by social needs (for love ND belonging) and self-esteem needs (to feel worthy, respected, and have status). The final and highest level needs are self-actualization needs (self-fulfillment and achievement). Its underlying theme is that human beings are ‘wanting’ beings: as they satisfy one need the next emerges on its own and demands satisfaction and so on until the need for self-actualization that, by its very nature, cannot be fully satisfied and thus does not generate more needs.

Food is one of the physiological needs for survival, but in my opinion it is also a self- fulfillment need if you eat expensive “Gourmet” food. Chapter 5 Questions: 1. Explain the definition of personality and its nature. General: Relatively stable, consistent, and distinctive set tot mental and emotional characteristics a person exhibits when alone, or when interacting with people and his or her external environment. 2. Contrast the major characteristics of the following personality theories: a) Freudian theory, b) neo-Freudian theory, and c) trait theory.

In your answer, illustrate how each theory is applied to the understanding of consumer behavior a) Freudian (or psychoanalytic) theory is based on the premise that subconscious deeds, especially biological and sexual needs, are the center of human motivation and personality. Because of its clinical origin, this theory stresses measurement of personality through qualitative or subjective approaches (e. G. , projective techniques). The major application of Freudian theory to consumer behavior is Ernest Etcher’s work. ) Neo-Freudian theory contends that social relationships are fundamental to the development of personality. For example, Adler proposed that overcoming feelings of inferiority is the major factor in human motivation, and Sullivan viewed reduction of anxiety as a key factor. The most systematic application of neo-Freudian theory in consumer re-s-e-a-r-c-h is the development of the CAD scale-?a personality test based on Karen Hornet’s proposition that individuals can be classified into three personality types: compliant, aggressive, and detached.

These personality types and the re-s-e-a-r-c-h findings of studies that used the CAD scale are described in the text. C) Trait theory, in contrast to Freudian and neo-Freudian theories, is quantitative in its orientation. It views personality as a set of enduring traits rather than the result of pugnacious drives. These traits are usually expressed in numerical scores obtained on self-administered paper-and-pencil tests. Single trait personality tests have been particularly successful in adding to the understanding of consumer behavior, and such tests are increasingly being developed for use in consumer re-s-e-a-r-c-h.

Personality traits have been linked to many consumption behaviors including purchase patterns of various products (but seldom to consumption of specific brands), store choices, purchasing foreign made products, and to differentiating between innovators and non-innovator . How would you explain the fact that, although no two individuals have identical personalities, personality is sometimes used in consumer research to identify distinct and sizable market segment No two individuals have identical personalities, but everybody has almost the same needs.

There are different market groups where every human being fit in one of those. Everybody needs food, but there are different groups tot tastes. And there are also monopolists as an example: Apple. Their target group are students, photographers, IT-Specialists and everybody you want to life the “Apple Style of Life”. So they are comparison a lot of people in their segment. 4. Describe personality trait theory. Give five Examples of how personality traits can be used in consumer research. The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality.

The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. If someone asked you to describe the personality of a close friend, what kind of things would you say? A few things that might spring to mind are descriptive terms such as outgoing, kind and even- tempered. All of these represent traits. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways. Innovativeness, Dogmatism, Social Character, Need for uniqueness, optimum simulation level 1 .

Describe the type of promotional message that would be most suitable for each of the following personality market segments and give an example of each: (a) highly dogmatic consumers, (b) inner-directed consumers, (c) consumers with high optimum stimulation levels, (d) consumers with a high need for cognition, and (e) consumers who are visualize versus consumers who are verbalizes. ) HIGHLY DOGMATIC CUSTOMERS: It is a personality trait that measures the degree of rigidity (versus openness) that individuals display towards unfamiliar and towards information that is contrary to their own established beliefs .

A person who is high in dogmatism approaches the unfamiliar defensively while the person who is low in dogmatism will rarely consider unfamiliar or opposing beliefs. Consumers who are low in dogmatism I. E. Closed minded persons generally prefer innovative products to traditional alternatives while consumers who are high in dogmatism prefer established products rather than the innovative product alternatives. So here the Promotional message towards which the highly dogmatic customers are more receptive is Ads for new products or services that contains an appeal from the authoritative figure.

So here the marketer uses celebrities and experts to their new product advertising for making it easier for the potentially reluctant customers. While in contrast low dogmatic customers who have high innovativeness seems to be receptive towards messages that stress factual differences, product benefits and other forms of product usage information ) Inner-directed consumers tend to rely on their own inner values or standards in evaluating new products and are likely to be consumer innovators.

Inner-directed people seem to prefer ads that stress product features and personal benefits, which enabling them to use their own values and standards in evaluating products. C) Consumers with a high optimum stimulation level are more open to risk-taking, more likely to be innovative, try products with many novel features, and shop in new retail outlets. Consumers Witt high OSLO are likely to respond deplorably to promotional assuages stressing more rather than less risk, novelty, or excitement. ) Consumers with a high need for cognition are ones who often crave or enjoy thinking. They are likely to be responsive to ads that are rich in product-related information or De-s-c-r-I-p-Zion and are unresponsive to the auxiliary or contextual aspects of an advertisement. E) marketers should stress visual dimensions in attracting visualize (I. E. , consumers who prefer visual information, products that stress the visual) and detailed De-s-c-r-I- p-t-ions and explanations in targeting verbalizes (I. E. , consumers who prefer written and verbal product information).

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