Physiological Characteristics of Badminton Match Play

Badminton is widely known as the fastest racket sport. Specifically, as an intermittent, high intensity sport, badminton players demonstrate acute reaction and movement speed.

However, looking at the bigger picture, badminton is more than just speed, so what are some factors that determine one’s performance in badminton? First of all, Manrique and Gonzalez-Badillo (2003) had suggested in their study of competitive badminton characteristics that good badminton performance relies heavily on players’ systemic aerobic capacity, as well as anaerobic capacity for short recovery period between rallies (pg. 66).

Secondly, Lin et al. (2007) suggested that appropriate muscle warm-ups are effective in improving footwork performance (p. 1082). Also, interestingly, Abian-Vicen, D. Coso, Gonzalez-Millan, J. Salinero, and Abian (2012) mentioned in their study that dehydration can “negatively” (pg. 7) impact athletes’ badminton performance, due to prolonged capillaries constriction in high intensity matches. In addition, Felder, Fröhlich, and Wey had expressed that muscular characteristics like strength and flexibility leads to optimal “movement patterns” (p. 19) which can largely benefit athletes’ performance.

In this article, I am going to discuss how specific muscle characteristics contribute to badminton performance. Sonoda et al. (2018) found out that specific lower limb muscles benefit badminton players’ performance through enhancing agility. In addition, core strength has a significant effect on maintaining postural balance (Ozman & Aydogmus, 2015, p. 569). Sakurai & Ohtsuki (2010) had studied the specific muscles on the upper extremity that contribute to badminton athletes’ accuracy of performance (p. 914).

In a badminton match, players’ performance is tightly related to agility, which relies heavily on the lower limb muscle strength (as cited in Young et al.). Despite the existing studies about how agility relates to muscle power, Sonoda et al. (2018) suggested that there’s little information on the specific groups of muscle that enables athletes’ agility (p. 321).

The study involved “23 male university badminton players” with various years of experience in badminton. Participants’ agility data were collected through side-shuttle test. During the test, participants took side steps to cross the line drawn 1 meter apart from the middle line. The more crossing-overs they accomplish in 20 seconds, the higher scores they get (Sonoda et al., 2018, p. 321).

In addition, the muscle tests focused on the extension and flexion movements of hip joint, ankle joint and knee joint were measured using designated machines. As a result, the study found out that the more experienced the participants were, the higher agility score they receive. Correspondingly, those who scores higher in agility demonstrated higher lower limb muscle strength (Sonoda et al., 2018, p. 321).

Study also showed that gluteus maximus acts as a major hip extensor in maintaining squatting position in badminton. The ankle plantar flexors, which locates on the ground side of the feet, was proved to be important for movements in direction changing. Plus, strength of these two muscles are key to participants’ agility in the side-shuffle test, regardless of playing experience. However, Sonoda et al. (2018) suggested that this study could be expanded as it lacks the specific timing of when the muscle come into play during the movements.

While lower limb muscle plays a big role in badminton, core strength training is crucial in maintaining postural control throughout a match. As illustrated in previous studies, core strength trainings benefits badminton performance and reduce chance of injuries from muscle imbalance (as cited in Saeterbakken et al., 2011; Schilling et al., 2013; Stantonet al., 2004; Tse et al., 2005; Sekendiz et al., 2010; Davidson et al., 2004; Granata and Gottepati, 2008; Van Dieën et al., 2012).

Ozmen et al. (2015) further investigated the impact of Core Strength Trainings (CST) on “core endurance, dynamic balance and agility in badminton players” (p. 566). The study was performed with twenty adolescent badminton players. During the study, all three core-related performance tactics were paired with designated testing method, which were done both before and after a 6-week CST program.

By analyzing statistics, Ozmen et al. (2015) suggested that CST had obviously benefited participants’ core endurance and postural stability, while not as much in their agility (p. 569). To clarify, core muscles helps support lower limb muscles and thus maintain static and dynamic postural control, while explosive power training may be more helpful in improving agility (Ozmen et al., 2015, p. 569).

They also explained that because agility is also affected by other muscles groups and, core strength independently might not make a big difference in agility improvement. Nevertheless, they concluded that core strength training is beneficial to badminton performance enhancement as it helps improving postural stability throughout the high intensity, yet fast-speed badminton matches (Ozmen et al., 2015, p. 569).

Despite lower extremity stability and agility, badminton performance accentuates on “precision” of strokes. Sakurai and Ohtsuki (2000) focused on the relationship between muscle and performance, as well as the muscular activity related to smash stroke (p. 902). Participants in the study were 5 advanced badminton players and 5 novice players (p. 902).

Researchers collected participants’ electromyogram (EMG) that record the muscular activity of bicep brachii, tricep brachii, and the two forearm antagonists—flexor and extensor ulnar radialis (p. 903) to analyze their muscular activities. Bicep brachii was not analyzed due to unreliable original measurements from participants (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 903). 2 experiments were set up in comparison of muscle activity variance skilled and unskilled players under controlled conditions.

Experiment 1 targeted on individual’s muscular activity without intervention (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 902), while experiment 2 focused on individual’s performance change throughout a period of muscular training (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 907). Procedures in two experiments were identical, while experiment 2 emphasized individual’s progression under the same training scheme, in order to minimize potential bias towards experienced player.

Participants were assigned to perform smash stroke toward the set target (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 913). Amount of deviation was recorded on the graph (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 908). The result showed that skilled players indicated longer preparation latency of bicep brachii.

Moreover, skilled players demonstrated more intense and acute muscular activity at the time of the stroke compared to unskilled players. Also, from experiment 2, study found that experienced players tend to improve accuracy more than unskilled players in the same amount of time (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 908).

On the other hand, Sakurai and Ohtuski (2000) suggested, based on the EMG data, that skilled badminton players demonstrated more stable power production and longer preparation latency. Therefore, Sakurai & Ohtsuki (2000) concluded that skilled players had already formed an “automated voluntary movement” (p. 913) due to previous playing experience.

When looking at specific arm muscles, however, they found out the muscular activity of tricep brachii and trapezius did not differ much between skilled and unskilled players, while the two forearm muscles appeared to have higher activity in skilled players (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 913). Therefore, they suggested that the forearm muscles were the key to accurate badminton performance through controlling flexible wrist movements (Sakurai & Ohtsuki, 2000, p. 913).

From all the articles I have discussed above, we can see that muscle characteristics contribute to so many aspects of badminton performance. On-court practice is a vital part of badminton training, but specific muscle training should not be undermined as it plays such a big role in enhancing performance.

However, it appears that the existing studies had not talked too much about ethnic and genetic factors, or how ethnic and genetic factors may impact on muscular performance. Therefore, I suggest that further studies can include anthropometric in the process in order to make the result more application for people from all over the world and different genetic background.


  1. Sakurai, S. & Ohtsuki, T. (2000) Muscle activity and accuracy of performance of the smash stroke in badminton with reference to skill and practice, Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(11), 901-914. DOI: 10.1080/026404100750017832
  2. Ozmen, T. & Aydogmus, M. (2015) Effect of core strength training on dynamic balance and gility in adolescent badminton players,
  3. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 20(3), 565-570. DOI:
  4. Abián-Vicén, J., Del Coso, J., González-Millán, C., Salinero, J. J., Abián, P. (2012) Analysis of Dehydration and Strength in Elite
  5. Badminton Players. PLoS ONE 7(5): e37821, 1-7. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037821
  6. Sonoda, T., Tashiro, Y., Suzuki, Y., Kajiwara, Y., Zeidan, H., Yokota, Y., … Aoyama, T. (2018). Relationship between agility and lower limb muscle strength, targeting university badminton players. Journal of physical therapy science, 30(2), 320–323.
  7. Cabello Manrique, D., González-Badillo, J. J. (2003) Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton. British Journal of Sports
  8. Medicine, 37(1), 62-66.
  9. Lin, H., Tong, T. K., Huang, C., Nie, J., Lu, K., & Quach, B. (2007). Specific inspiratory muscle warm-up enhances badminton footwork performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32(6), 1082-1088. doi: 10.1139/H07-077
  10. Felder, H., Fröhlich, M., & Wey, J. (2016). Explorative study on muscle strength and muscle strength ratios in top national and international badminton players. Kuala Lumpur: World Badminton Federation.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyStudyWriters
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business and administrative studies
excellent job
Customer 452773, March 12th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
always perfect work and always completed early
Customer 452773, February 21st, 2023
Business Studies
Thank you very much for a good job done and a quick turn around time.
Customer 452615, March 31st, 2021
Great job
Customer 452773, February 13th, 2023
ACC/543: Managerial Accounting & Legal Aspects Of Business
Customer 452773, January 10th, 2024
I just need some minor alterations. Thanks.
Customer 452547, February 10th, 2021
Business and administrative studies
Thank you for your hard work
Customer 452773, October 19th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
great job as always
Customer 452773, February 26th, 2023
The support team was late responding , my paper was late because the support team didn't respond in a timely manner. The writer of the paper finally got it right but seems there was a problem getting the revisioin to me.
Customer 452773, April 7th, 2024
Thank you for your hard work and help.
Customer 452773, February 13th, 2023
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Customer 452773, June 25th, 2023
Managerial Accounting & Legal Aspects of Business ACC/543
excellent work
Customer 452773, February 7th, 2024
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own

Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;

  • Dissertations and Thesis
  • Essays
  • All Assignments

  • Research papers
  • Terms Papers
  • Online Classes
Live ChatWhatsApp