Perceptions Of Cancer In Children

Table of contents

Cancer is a awful disease none of us would desire to hold. Peoples may hold different general perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease in kids, striplings and younger grownups. Those perceptual experiences may come from the media, from wellness attention suppliers, an overheard narrative or from a member of a household who experienced it, and through these brushs, perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease may be formed.

For a 3rd universe state like the Philippines, a delayed acknowledgment of the disease every bit good as forsaking of intervention may ensue partially from misinterpretations and beliefs of incurableness, wholly lending to patient mortality. Misperceptions, and therefore the demands for increased support, may be greatest in a public infirmary with largely patients of low socio-economic position and educational degree. Such patients may peculiarly necessitate support from governmental and non-governmental bureaus every bit good as private sector spouses to prolong intervention. Once public perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease in an country are better understood, targeted educational runs and resources may be better dedicated to assist households in demand and address misperceptions that affect patient attention.

Reappraisal of related literature and / or what is already known about the subject?

In developed states, endurance results for kids and striplings with malignant neoplastic disease have improved significantly over the past few decennaries; for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, for case, 5-year endurance estimations for kids aged 15 old ages and below have increased from 60 % to up to 89 % ( Smith et Al, 2010 ). In the Philippines, in contrast, 5-year endurance for childhood malignant neoplastic disease has been estimated to be merely 5-10 % ( Ribeiro et al, 2008 ).

As suggested by surveies in other low-income states, persons ‘ perceptual experiences, beliefs, and awareness refering malignant neoplastic disease may impact intervention decision-making ( Kumar et al, 2010 ). In the Philippines, in add-on to misperceptions, audiences with unconventional health care suppliers such as faith therapists may be normally practiced ( Gamboa, 1984 ) ( Kimby et al. , 2003 ), and contribute to holds in intervention, which may in bend worsen results.

In developing states the principal cause of intervention failure in kids malignant neoplastic disease is abandonment ( Arora et al, 2010 ) . However, beyond fiscal and transit troubles that lead to intervention refusal and forsaking, perceptual experiences that malignant neoplastic disease is incurable may besides add to put on the line for forsaking. Thus misperceptions about malignant neoplastic disease in each scene should be carefully studied, so that they may be better addressed through instruction, reding and support ( Sitaresmi et al, 2010 ).

A recent qualitative survey on parents’ positions on information proviso in childhood malignant neoplastic disease attention suggested that the extent and type of information known to parents about the unwellness of their kid may impact get bying ( Kastel at Al, 2010 ). Patients themselves may be likewise affected because better support from households through good information may better communicating and patient results. The populace may frequently hold different perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease than the positions of experts ( Lipworth et al. 2010 ). A survey done about the general populace ‘s malignant neoplastic disease consciousness in the United Kingdom found that even in a first universe state, there still may be important lacks in footings of malignant neoplastic disease consciousness ( Adlard and Hume, 2003 ) . In developing states, the demand for information and public instruction sing malignant neoplastic disease may be even more profound.

Cancer patients who are adolescent and immature grownups up to 29 old ages of age may see physical and emotional challenges that are rather distinguishable from those in patients of other age groups. A recent follow-up survey of stripling and immature grownup malignant neoplastic disease subsisters ( Kazar et al, 2010 ) reported that diagnosing during adolescence was associated with more negative self-reported psychosocial map and wellness beliefs, proposing that wellness perceptual experiences may impact well-being even in the long term. Persons in this age group may besides be more likely to seek wellness information online ( Koch-Weser et Al, 2010 ) and therefore potentially have different malignant neoplastic disease perceptual experiences than those in other age groups. Better understanding different public perceptual experiences and their beginnings would let wellness suppliers to turn to misperceptions, and assist concentrate information airing on the most needful subjects.

Research question/s and/or what is non yet known about the subject?

  1. Amongst grownups go toing a third public infirmary in a resource-limited scene, what are some general perceptual experiences sing malignant neoplastic disease, and specifically leukaemia in kids or younger grownups?
  2. What are these perceptual experiences based on? ( Personal experience? Others’ experiences? Media? Etc.)

Significance of the survey and / or what will healthcare be if the answer/s to the research question/s will be known?

By better understanding public perceptual experience of malignant neoplastic disease in kids, striplings and immature grownups, wellness suppliers may be able to:

  1. Better reference misinterpretations and assist usher patients and households to get by with the unwellness
  2. Better address the different perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease in kids, striplings and immature grownups through media, wellness attention suppliers and patients ‘ several household members

Objective/s and/or what will this survey make?

  1. To garner general perceptual experiences refering malignant neoplastic disease in kids, striplings and immature grownups, amongst grownups at a third public infirmary in Mindanao, Philippines
  2. To place possible precedences for public consciousness publicity and protagonism for malignant neoplastic disease in kids, striplings and immature grownups.


Research design

A qualitative survey of the general perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease in kids, stripling and immature grownups at a third public infirmary in Mindanao, Philippines is proposed utilizing semi-structured interview as the primary research attack. A personal interview was considered to be more appropriate for our puting instead than the usage of a telephone interview as non every family owns a telephone, and such studies are non common in our scene. A semi-structured interview was selected in stead of a cross-sectional study to better research the new subject. Furthermore, Pollock et Al. ( 2010 ) late found that qualitative interviewing may be more effectual than a questionnaire in researching persons ‘ ideas on malignant neoplastic disease information ; in comparing usage of questionnaires to interview to measure malignant neoplastic disease patients ‘ satisfaction, they showed that both the quality and item provided was richer utilizing colloquial interviews.

Use of a semi-structured interview allows us to utilize inquiries that were prepared in front of clip in add-on to holding flexibleness to follow respondents’ train of idea as appropriate during the interview. Using open-ended inquiries will let patients to joint in their ain words their perceptual experiences instead than holding research workers categorise them, which may be peculiarly appropriate for this survey since there are no formal surveies researching this subject in the Philippines to our cognition.

The interview procedure will get down in February of 2011 upon moralss blessing. Patients will be recruited from the clinics three times a hebdomad, with the end of enrolling 3-5 patients each clip. The brief interviews will be recorded on paper with infinite for every inquiry and besides be audio-recorded with participant consent, with interviews expected to last for 5-10 proceedingss. While there is an on-going audio-recording the participant is besides observed for their facial looks, position, or for non-verbal cues that can non be captured on tape. To promote variable responses, the interview manner is informal and involves open-ended inquiries. The information will be analyzed by inductive content analysis with coding. Subjects will be identified from transcripts of the audio-recordings or handwritten notes for comparing and analysis. Independent reappraisal and initial cryptography of the transcripts will be conducted by the survey research workers, with subsequent treatment and declaration of differences by consensus.


The survey will be held at the General Pediatric Outpatient Department and Internal Medicine Department at JICA constructing during their clinic hours from Monday to Friday, 1-3pm, at the Southern Philippines Medical Center. Consultation starts at 8am-5pm with tiffin interruptions. The subspecialty clinics are separated. The cut off age for the general paediatricss section is 14 old ages old and below with upper limit of 50-70 patients and 14 old ages old and above for general internal medical specialty with a upper limit of 50-80 patients in a twenty-four hours. Outpatient audience fee is 30 pesos which hapless households in the bottom 30 percent income group with an mean monthly income of P6,475 in 2007 can afford ( National Statistical Coordination Board ).


Inclusion Standards

Each of these standards must be met for inclusion:

  1. Watchers/care-givers or healthy patients 18 old ages old or over showing for non-acute attention at ambulatory clinics
  2. English- or Bisaya/Tagalog-speakers
  3. Those physically and mentally able, are willing to be interviewed on the subject of malignant neoplastic disease and give their consent

Exclusion Standards

Either of these standards being met will take to exclusion:

  1. Watchers/care-givers or healthy patient below 18 old ages old presenting for non-acute attention at ambulatory clinics
  2. Watchers/care-givers of patients ( or patients themselves ) who are presently being managed for malignant neoplastic disease, or are showing to clinic for question malignant neoplastic disease ( Note: Watchers/patients who are former malignant neoplastic disease patients or household members of malignant neoplastic disease patients who have completed intervention may still be included if they meet all the above inclusion standards. ) This exclusion standard attempts to protect participants who may be more emotionally affected if they or their household member were presently undergoing malignant neoplastic disease therapy; besides, as a group, their experiences and perceptual experiences are likely really different that they should be considered in a separate survey. On the other manus, many may hold aged household members with a history of malignant neoplastic disease, yet remain potentially valuable sources for this survey.)

Definition of footings

Children – used here by and large for those between ages 0-13 old ages.

Adolescent and Young Adult ( AYA ) – adapted from a normally used term in paediatric oncology, to mention to those aged between 13-29 old ages.

Children, Adolescent and Young Adult ( CYA ) – used in this survey to depict both Children and AYA as a group.

Cancer – any malignance in the described age groups, including leukaemia and solid tumour.

Sampling processs

Those who meet the inclusion standards will be included in the survey. A maximal fluctuation purposive sampling is used to deliberately include individuals of different age, gender, and evident socio-economic position, as their perceptual experiences may differ. An expected sum of no more than 40 participants are expected to be recruited to accomplish impregnation, when no new information appears to originate from subsequent interviews ( Patton, 1990 ) . Small samples can derive a better, more in-depth apprehension of topics such as persons ‘ general wellness perceptual experiences, as have been used in other surveies related to this subject. As a recent illustration, a qualitative survey with 25 survey participants was able to place of import subjects to steer future surveies with respects to understanding immature unwritten malignant neoplastic disease patients ‘ perceptual experiences ( Grant et Al, 2010 ).

Datas assemblage

Main result steps

General perceptual experiences of malignant neoplastic disease

Symptoms of malignant neoplastic disease

Percepts of how malignant neoplastic disease is diagnosed and treated

Percepts of impact of malignant neoplastic disease diagnosing, including results

Expected beginnings of medical/financial/psychosocial support for CYA with malignant neoplastic disease

Beginning of information/awareness sing malignant neoplastic disease

Data handling and analysis

The interviewer will do handwritten notes of the participants ‘ responses every bit closely as possible. Audio-recording, where agreed upon by the participant, will be included to ease accurate gaining control of informations. All the interviews will be conducted by a first twelvemonth paediatric occupant doctor, with informations analysis done together with one paediatric junior adviser, and two paediatric oncology/hematology advisers. The information will be transcribed, translated and coded line by line. Succeeding regular squad meetings will be held to integrate feedback and reconcile differences. The interview will be reviewed independently by at least two advisers working with CYA with malignant neoplastic disease to measure inquiries ‘ content cogency. A pilot testing of the interview procedure will be done foremost on 5-10 voluntaries ( e.g. clinical trainees or clinical support squad members ) with at least one other squad member observing, for initial feedback on interview manner and inquiry lucidity. Further pilot testing of the interview inquiries will so be done on an initial sample of 5-10 people run intoing the inclusion/exclusion standards at the out-patient section of the paediatric and internal medical specialty section of the Southern Philippines Medical Center.

Ethical considerations

Oral consent is proposed in stead of written consent for farther protection of patients ‘ individuality and confidentiality ; their real/full names are non required for the survey, and all participants will be identified by a codification name/number. Based on the inclusion and exclusion standards they should hold an accurate apprehension of the survey ‘s focal point. Patients may anticipate that privateness will be respected and the squad ‘s purpose to make no injury. A privy country at the out-patient section will be made ready in instance the topics requested a small privateness. For patients/caregivers of malignant neoplastic disease patients this issue might be sensitive for them, and those households affected presently with malignant neoplastic disease are therefore excluded from the survey. A participant who becomes uncomfortable during the interview may instantly halt at any clip and all are invited to give their ideas openly. Participants are free to inquire inquiries and can bespeak more information about the survey.

Dummy Consequence

In a qualitative person interview survey, grownups showing to a public third infirmary in Mindanao had a by and large ___perspective sing malignant neoplastic diseases in kids, striplings and immature grownups. Cancer is described as being _____ and survival is____ . Some of the most common symptoms they knew were ______ . Families who seek medical attention from this establishment are from the different categories of the society but largely from the ____ or ___ . Percepts of how malignant neoplastic disease is diagnosed and managed included ____ . Expected outcomes most normally described included _____ . Anticipated beginnings of support for malignant neoplastic disease patients named included _______ Main beginnings of information about malignant neoplastic disease described were____ , _____ , _____ .

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