Notes on Psychological Barriers to Participation in Sport

Biological factors & demographic factors – Obesity – can be linked to genetics as well as eating a lot; Psychological – self-esteem – a view of one’s self; how much you like yourself? Self-concept- I am intelligent/ self esteem – how much you like that? Social and cultural factors- disposable income (cannot afford gym) working hours (no time) location (no gyms, no football pitches ect) Religion – Muslim (women cannot wear sports gear) religious days could class with sports days (Sunday) Physical Activity characteristics – intensity, duration, frequency of activity; dependent on fitness levels of participants.Diagram Environment – e. g. running requires a certain environment, cycling paths available, rough area; don’t want to leave house in dark Person and Behavioural Psychological, cognitive and emotional factors Imporant – Self – efficacy – Situational specific judgement of your ability to complete a particular behavioural set.

Self efficacy assessment – includes both affirmation of a capability level and the strength of that belief. ‘I am 75% sure that I can achieve something’. Self efficacy could have a part in the fact that 60% of the population don’t do 30 mins a day. Triadic Reciprical causation modelSources of information that impact SE Performance Accomplishments – strongest impact on SE – They know that they have already done it. Making a task easy enough for the athlete to complete; this could mean that they have good SE in the future. Low exerciser – give them easy exercise. Vicarious Learning – Model someone elses behaviour – the closer you are to the model, the easier it is to replicate.

I couldn’t copy a golf swing from Tiger. Allows learning to identify errors in the model. Self modelling – watch themselves, video feedback, point out that they can do it, and pinpoint mistakes Verbal Persuasion -Physiological arousal – non-exercisers could not be used to things such as increased HR, and high breathing. Don’t perceive biofeedback properly. SE effects how much people believe they can impact the world/an outcome. Do they think they could win the match for their team for example. Transtheoretical model of behavioural change Each individual is given a stage depending on level you are at.

Pre contemplation – inactive, no intention Prepartation – active below criterion level 5*30 mins Action – continued regular level up to 5 * 30 Relapse or Maintenance Look at diagram for the rest of the info.

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