Violence can be defined as an assault or application of physical force of other person to exploit or hurt others (Encarta, 2007). Violence often illustrates injury to other persons that is usually intentional, and emotionally or verbally insulting to others. “Clinical associates” of violent behavior are recognized, but the fundamental mechanisms are not yet well understood, such as mechanisms involving intricate interaction between perinatal and prenatal environmental factors, genes, and rearing conditions.
According to recent studies, violent behavior is heterogeneous, meaning; hasty works of violence differ in managements, methods, and origin (The Journal…, 1999). There have been studies in molecular genetics that indicates that neurotransmitter regulation observed through the use of brain imaging methods might be the one affecting violent behaviors. It is also said that increasing evidence indicates harmony between suicidal behavior and neurobiology of violence. According to the Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences:
In the United States, homicide accounts for approximately 20,000 deaths annually and a victimization survey estimated that approximately 4. 2 violent crimes (assaults, robberies, and rapes) occur annually for each 100 persons older than 12 years, while another survey of the general adult population found a 3. 7% annual rate of self reported violent behavior against other persons, and thus, violent crime and violent behavior in general cause a major public health problem (p. 307).
According to studies conducted, cultural and societal factors have a significant role in the growth of violent behaviors, however, these environmental factors shows different reactions in different persons. Base on studies, personality disorders, major mental disorders, substance used, and other disorders add to the intensity of human violence, however, recent evidence directs to neurobiological mechanisms influence the control and development of violent behaviors (The Journal…, 1999).
“Substance use sickness” such as the utilization of alcohol and drugs perform a great part in suicides and violent or aggressive behaviors. Disorders in personality, specifically the “borderline personality disorder” and the “antisocial personality”, are commonly displayed by violent behaviors, and a part of violent acts happening in the society are due to persons identified with extreme mental disorders like schizophrenia or mood disorders.
Many hormones and neurotransmitters such as opiods, steroids, vasopressin, and other substances are concerned in the moderation of violent behaviors. Gender is also predicts suicide and violent behaviors because base on surveys, it is generally known that males are the major perpetrators of aggressiveness and violence The Journal…, 1999). Also, based on some studies, gender difference in aggressiveness starts to mature in preschool years and is fully expressed by puberty due to societal causes including child rearing practices.
Violence can be reduced, prevented, and treated in many ways or methods and some of these are: improvements in the perinatal and prenatal care and avoidance of head injuries, caring and treating manic and schizophrenic patients and focusing on the treatment and diagnosis of frequent substance use disorders, and strong adherence to treatment and medication and monitoring of patients with major mental disorders who have a record of violence after discontinuing their treatment or medication (The Journal…, 1999).
Years of studies have brought understanding and progress in the neurobiology of science, and it has been maximized by several contributions in brain imaging and molecular genetics. And with the extreme understanding of neurobiology, harmony or unity between suicide and violence can be clearly viewed. References Encarta. (n. d. ). Violence. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from http://encarta. msn. com/encyclopedia_761585330/Violence. html The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. (1999). The Neurobiology of Violence: An Update. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from http://neuro. psychiatryonline. org/cgi/reprint/11/3/307. pdf