History of Globalization
Globalization history Name: Institution: Scientist may approximate when the world was formed but people do not know how true this is. However, one thing is very clear; the way of our lives have changed from the most primitive to very a very advanced. Presently in the world there are sectors that are more developed more than others owing to some reasons. Globalization is responsible for all these developments that have occurred at different paces (Appadurai, 2003). Globalization is the difference of time and the evolution of world.
Hence its’ a term used to explain how the world is today, and changes that have occurred right from the ancient days to the present day. In a superficial description, globalization is a phenomenon that has produced fundamental changes within societies. It covers a range of social, economic and political changes. Thus, global history focuses on the human history and historic developments from many past decades, though to some people it is a product of modern forces of change which cannot be projected all the way back to the old decades.
Globalization is no more set in stone than global history and concept; it is accompanied by other concepts like information society, post industrial age, post modern age, and so on. Globalization is not a member of an archive in history, but it remains more of an explanatory, overarching concept for a series of actual processes of transformation. Globalization is a process that, for a long time, has been evolving. Different ideas and new developments are discovered as time pass (Teichmann, 2003). The economy, politics culture and military complexes follow their trends.
Though all these depend on where they are situated, the time and social class. Therefore globalization is an open process that transforms the economic, political, social, cultural and military institutions, which may be organizations like the church, state, family, companies and so forth. The major roles of globalization are the expansion concentration and acceleration of worldwide relations. One of its characteristics is its influence on everything covered by rubric of culture. The cultural globalization is normally driven by the communication technology and worldwide marketing of western cultural industries.
This was understood at the first process of normalization, as the global domination of Americans. It was at the expense of the traditional diversity. Then there was a difference and movements that started protesting against globalization and supporting local uniqueness, individuality and identity. The movements used same technologies to pursue their own goal and they would ask for the world’s opinion. Roland Robertson termed this as “Univesalization” (Global policy forum, 2005). Globalization is traced far back in the emergence of Homo sapiens and the migration out of Africa to the world.
Globalization is suggested as the process of migration was the central globalization driver, as it linked processes of demographic expansion and increasing density of human habitation. Through this, the population increased and the intermingling of different people brought some old behaviors to an end. There is a near endless array of things that can be done to deal with global political problems, but space constraints have always limited us to issues of accountability and transparency. And people adapted to new adaptations, which are not constant and they vary with time.
Through globalization the results of cultural change can be interpreted as hybridity. This means that new cultural elements being creatively adapted to mesh with existing ones and the people gradually adopt to the swiftly changing behavior. Most authors have described globalization as a fundamental change of categories of time and space, extensive use of electronic mail and the reduction in telephone fees has created and shared immediacy and a virtual togetherness, produces fundamentals for worldwide social relations. This has increased speed of communication.
In the economic globalization, there has been advancement in modes of transportation and technology, which have given free market ideology which has brought about fair trades and services. Supply and demand have become very effective due to the liberation of market sources from governmental regulations. Most countries have taken the advantage of globalization. There is also the advantageous use of the international financial institutions and regional trade agreements for assisting poor countries to reduce tariffs, to privatize state enterprises, and relax environmental and labor standards.
The results increase in profits for investors but offered pittances to laborers (Ritzer, 2010). There has been improvement in the world of agriculture as compared to historic days for instance the people of Mesopotamia used to use the ‘shadoff’ method of irrigation, through globalization better methods have been researched and developed like the use of water sprinklers, drip irrigation method just to mention. More so there has been the development of high breed seed that assist the farmers get high yields of harvest.
There are machinery powers that are used like the use tractors in ploughing the land and use combined harvesters to harvest wheat. This has drastically slowed down some cruel businesses like the slave trade and also slavery. In the traditional era, politics was conducted by the national governments, who were responsible for maintaining security and economic welfare of its citizens, land issues and also the human rights. Through globalization changes have occurred and this has forced the political activity to change also.
Politics has taken place through political integration schemes like united nations (U. N), European Union NGOs ,World bank and international monetary fund, just to mention, more so civil societies organizations act all over the world by forming alliances with organizations in other countries instead of working through their governments. There will always be differences of the globalization ideas, being a series of academic literatures, across political, economy and social science that are more specifically concerned with post second international economic development and politics.
Globalization theories see the process as driven by multiple transformations in human life, and it’s very difficult to unpick the factor which tends to be a key driver. Though that does not mean we at times are militant opponents of globalization. Globalization is reflexive to people; people self consciously orient themselves to the world. For example, in businesses people explore global markets. People meet in trade fairs. There are inter marriages, inter social mingling, people change ideas and also communication sighs.
Globalization contributes to human trafficking, most people through migrations, as people form 3rd world countries want to migrate to well develop countries in such of employment. Then if they fail to get the job they involve themselves with immorality. Also globalization encourages conflicts among different communities, as some communities wants to pose greater than others. This superiority and minority complexes leads to misunderstandings amongst people which lead to tribal wars and so on.
On the merit side of globalization, it has brought people through intermingling and there is advancement of communication and information technologies in that References Appadurai, A. (2003). Globalization. Durham [u. a. : Duke Univ. Press. Global policy forum. (2005). Globalization of the Economy. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from http://www. globalpolicy. org/globalization/globalization-of-the-economy-2-1. html Ritzer, G. (2010). Globalization: A basic text. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Teichmann, I. (2003). Globalization. North Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media.