Essay Summary of The city of ember

The city of ember Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Cancer of the upper respiratory and alimentary tracts claimed over 23,000 lives in 1989 and 57,000 additional cases were diagnosed. The majority of individuals who fall prey to this type of cancer are males who abuse both alcohol and tobacco. What is the risk you might ask. The fact that the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, lip, tongue, mouth, pharynx or larynx. increases dramatically in people who are heavy users of alcohol and tobacco is substantiated by 30 years of collective research.

Studies demonstrate that the risk to individuals dually addicted far utweighs the risk to Individuals who abuse only one substance. This confirmed link between alcohol and tobacco abuse and an increased risk in upper alimentary and respiratory tract cancer makes this type ot disease among the most preventable. The Correlation Between Smoking and Drinking . 1t has been observed that Individuals who drink alcohol have d greater tendency to smoke than non-drinkers. One of the first studies to establish and quantify the degree of association between drlnklng and smoking was reported In 1972.

The Investigation compared 130 alcoholic men hospitalized for alcohol withdrawal to 100 non-alcoholic psychiatric utpatients, Ninety-four percent of the alcoholic men smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day, as compared to only 46 percent of the non-alcohollcs, who smoked one or more packs per day. Another study. which compared male and female alcoholics enrolled In an army drug and alcohol rehabllltatlon program to non- alcoholic army personnel and their relatives, affirmed the smoking-drinking association.

The report found that individuals who were alcoholics smoked an average of 49 cigarettes per day, but that the non-alcoholic subjects smoked only 13 cigarettes per day. In addition, the study established a high correlation between the umber of cigarettes smoked and the grams of alcohol consumed by alcoholics, as opposed to a very weak association for the non-alcoholic control group. similar report, 58 percent ot the non-drinkers were non-smokers, but the individuals who were alcoholics did not abstain from smoking.

The finding that smokers who did not drink smoked significantly less than smokers who did drink was further substantiated In additional studies. Why Do Many Drinkers Smoke More? Studies released in the late 1950s, correlating heavy coffee consumption with smoking and drinking, suggested that a strong oral drive caused drinkers to smoke ore frequently. However, new evidence suggests that a strong oral drive is not the culprit. In one study, alcoholics who had successfully stopped drinking demonstrated no appreciable Increase In smoking.

In tact, some even smoked less with alcohol abstinence. If a strong oral drive was responsible for the drinking-smoking association, one would expect an increase in smoking during periods of alcohol abstinence. An alternative theory claimed that drinkers smoked more due to just as much as alcoholics who drink in the company of other people dispelled this theory. The most plausible explanation is that drinkers smoke more than non- rinkers due to a greater physiological need for nicotine. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, is a potent chemical.

It has a stimulating effect on the nervous system, causing, among other things, increased heart rate and mental stimulation. Once addicted to nicotine, a person may experience tremors of shakiness as blood levels of nicotine decrease to critically low levels. The smoker will crave another cigarette as blood levels reach this threshold to avoid these uncomfortable symptoms. Alcohol apparently causes blood levels of nicotine to fall more rapidly in smokers by activating enzymes in tissues which metabolize drugs. For example, rats pretreated with ethanol cleared nicotine from their blood more rapidly than rats not receiving ethanol.

This research, coupled with numerous independent observations, strongly suggests that drinkers must smoke more in order to maintain the blood nicotine levels upon which they have become dependent. Why Is There More Cancer Among Alcohol and Tobacco Users? Investigations are under way to find an answer to this question. Laboratory studies have shown that alcohol enhances the metabolism of several tobacco associated carcinogens, including nitrosamines. It is known that tobacco and its smoke contain many classes f chemical carcinogens which must be activated to react with DNA and initiate steps towards carcinogenesis.

Important in this activation process are cytochrome P-450 enzymes, which are induced by alcohol in heavy drinkers. Thus, alcohol and smoking are synergistic in increasing cancer risk. Since alcohol increases the metabolism and hence the need for nicotine, it follows that the success of smoking cessation programs will be improved if drinking habits of patients are controlled. Treatment of incipient alcoholism thus becomes a prerequisite for the ultimate success of behavior modification aimed at the elimination of smoking.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyStudyWriters
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business and administrative studies
excellent job!
Customer 452773, May 25th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
always perfect work and always completed early
Customer 452773, February 21st, 2023
excellent job
Customer 452773, August 12th, 2023
Love this writer!!! Great work
Customer 452597, April 5th, 2021
Business and administrative studies
Customer 452773, February 23rd, 2023
Human Resources Management (HRM)
excellent job
Customer 452773, June 25th, 2023
10th grade English
very good
Customer 452773, March 26th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
Thank you for your hard work and help
Customer 452773, February 21st, 2023
English 101
IThank you
Customer 452631, April 6th, 2021
English 101
great summery in terms of the time given. it lacks a bit of clarity but otherwise perfect.
Customer 452747, June 9th, 2021
Thank you
Customer 452811, February 17th, 2024
Thank you!!! I received my order in record timing.
Customer 452551, February 9th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own

Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;

  • Dissertations and Thesis
  • Essays
  • All Assignments

  • Research papers
  • Terms Papers
  • Online Classes
Live ChatWhatsApp