Essay Summary of Celebrity Endorsement

How the celebrity endorsement consumers in a negative way Professional research and Evaluation Student name: Jiang WeiWei Student number: 3363314 April, 2013 Abstract The goal of this research is to grasp consumers’ negative reaction of celebrity endorsement advertisement (including the reaction of over celebrity endorsement ads, celebrity’s over-endorsement and celebrity’s negative performance). The aim of this study is trying to find out how to take advantage of celebrity endorsement advertisement more effectively and correctly in Internet-information times.

As the development of entertainment and web 2. 0 tools (such as blog, social networking sites), more and more firms would like to invite a celebrity to show up in their ads to attract more attentions of their target consumers. As a result, the effect of celebrity endorsement ads is not as effective as it was. Sometimes the celebrity endorsement would have even a counterproductive effect on consumers. Introduction Celebrity endorsement advertising has been one of the most common strategies for a brand or product to gain public’s awareness.

It has been estimated that one quarter of all advertisements employ a celebrity spokesperson to endorse a product or brand (Shimp, 1997). Freiden (1984) found that celebrities stood out in terms of trustworthiness, likability, persuasiveness and believability. However, the effect of celebrity endorsement ads has been weakened as the appearances of over celebrity endorsement ads, celebrity’s over-endorsement and celebrity’s scandal. In the literature, only few studies in celebrity have studies consumers’ negative reactions.

So findings in this area would help the advertisers select and create more effective celebrity endorser ads under the new changes. Reference David, H & Benedikte, A, 2003, ‘Factors predicating the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisements’, Journal of European Marketing, vol. 38, no. 11/22, pp. 1509-1526 This research examines whether consumers infer that celebrity endorsers like the products they endorse. The study presents a model using these inferences and other characteristics of the endorser to predict attitudes toward the endorsed products.

I found this article through RMIT library database. I searched using the keywords factors of influence of celebrity endorsement. Steven, M, Edwards & Carrie, LA, Ferle, 2009, ‘Does gender impact the perception of negative information related to celebrity endorsement’, Journal of Promotion Management, 15(1), 22-35 The study examines the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement by examining how a respondent’s gender impacts identification with a spokesman and the processing of negative information about celebrity’s performance. I found this article through RMIT library database.

I searched using the keywords negative influence and celebrity endorsement. Kineta, Hung, Kimmy, W, Chan & Caleb, H, 2011, ‘Assessing celebrity endorsement effects in china: a consumer-celebrity relational approach’, Journal of Advertising Research, 10(2), 608-622 This article aims to exam how the celebrity over-endorsement effect on consumers and to explain which kind of celebrity has a deeper and wider influence on consumers. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world over-endorsement.

Somdutta, Biswas & Mahmood, Hussain & Kathleen, O, Donnell, 2009, ‘Celebrity endorsements in advertisements and consumer perceptions: a cross-cultural study’, Journal of Global Marketing, 22(5), 121-137 This article studies consumer perceptions of celebrity endorsements from a cross-cultural perspective. The implications for markets in this article as well as suggestions for future research as discussed. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world celebrity endorsement in advertising.

Kerry, 2010, Endorsement in advertising: a social history, 8th edn, illustrated, McFarland & Co, Michigan University This book introduces a brief history of celebrity endorsement advertisement from 1919 to 2003 which including some growth and changes about spokesman ads. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world history of endorsement ads. Robert, Macken@gmail. com, 2010, ‘UK. Election celebrity endorsement’, weblog post, 3rd May, General One File, viewed 31 March 2013, http://find. galegroup. com. ezproxy. rmit. edu. u This blog discusses the situation of celebrity endorsement in UK which in a typical country would represent an average state of celebrity spokesman ads. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world celebrity in UK. Angela, B & Maureen, W, 2003, ‘The naked truth of celebrity endorsement’, Journal of British Food, vol. 105, no. 4/5, pp 288-296 This case study examines the use of celebrity endorsement in the formation of the retail image of leading European grocery. The aim of this study is to explore the essence of the spokesmen advertisements.

I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world the truth of celebrity endorsement. Erik, J & Henri, burgers, 2009, ‘Celebrity capital as a strategic asset: Implications for new venture strategies’, Advances in Entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth, 8th edn, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 137-160 This book explains that how the celebrity entrepreneurs benefit new ventures and shows that how the different strategic implications of celebrity capital for ventures using celebrity entrepreneurs versus endorsers.

I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world celebrity endorsement. Elliott, T1992, ‘The media business: Advertising: New tactics on celebrity endorsement’, Newspaper of The New York Time, 3 April, p. 3 This article comes from The New York Time newspaper which discusses the new changes about celebrity endorsement as a new media tactic that has attracted much attention from consumers. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world new media tacyics

Chung-Kue, Hsu & Daniella, Mcdonald, 2002, ‘An examination on multiple celebrity endorsers in advertising’, Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 11(1), no. 6, pp. 19-29 This study discusses advantages and potential concerns of multi-celebrity endorsement advertising and documented the actual use of multiple celebrity endorsers in the milk mustache campaign in the USA. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world multiple celebrity endorsement. Annotated bibliography Steven, M, Edwards & Carrie, LA, Ferle, 2009, ‘Does gender impact the perception of negative information related to celebrity endorsement’, Journal of Promotion Management, 15(1), 22-35 This article seeks to define how the negative information about a celebrity impact male and female consumers in different ways (such as different extent impacts). The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of an endorsement for a gender-related product (such as cars and cosmetics). The summary of this article provides a useful overview.

The discussion is logical and reasonable, especially the first hypothesis which aims to explain negative information about a celebrity will impact consumers’ attitude towards the celebrity, endorsement/advertisement, product rating, and product interest negatively is useful and related to my research. Furthermore, most of the examples of celebrity’s endorsement (such as Josh Howard and Michael Phelps) in this article are new and typical which would explain the situation (celebrity over-endorsement) clearly.

However, the final findings from the research and hypothesis are not clearly and specific. For example, there is no exact result about which group (male or female consumers) would have a stronger reaction to negative information about endorser. The author should do a further explanation about the reason why it is hard to get the exact results. I found this article through RMIT library database. I searched using the keywords negative influence and celebrity endorsement. Kineta, Kimmy, W & Caleb, H, 2011, ‘Assessing celebrity endorsement effects in china: a consumer-celebrity relational approach’, Journal of Advertising Research, 10(2), 608-622 This article discusses consumers’ reaction about endorsed brands and over-endorsement ads in china. Following that is a deeper investigation about comparing sports celebrity with entertainment celebrity’s influence on consumers. The purpose of this article is to confirm consumers and celebrity’s relationship in china and to help advertisers to pick up a suitable spokesman for their brands and products .

The author quotes some latest literatures (such as the definition of value-transfer approach) and examples which could represent for the fast-replacing generation of celebrity. The second hypothesis of this article is helpful to my study, especially the findings about the celebrity’s capacity may be related to the diversity of the celebrity’s core value set. The finding also illustrates that not all the celebrity who endorse multiple brands would decrease their influence on consumers. At the same time, there are some shortages in this article.

Firstly, some of the investigations are too complicated to understand, especially the large number of tables and graphs which make the data difficult to calculate. In addition, the online survey samples just focused on generation-young people which is an important group but not representative of the overall consumer population. In conclusion, although this study was conducted in China market, the findings of this study would implications that beyond cultural context. I found this article through the RMIT library database. I searched using the key world over-endorsement.

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