Elaborate on the Evolution of Human Resource Management

Ans: Kautilya provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources as early as 4th century B. C. in his treatise titled “Arth –Shastra”. As it has been described in the book, there prevailed logical procedures and principles in respect of labor organizations such as Shreni or guild system and co-operative sector. The wages were paid strictly in terms of quantity and quality of work turned out and punishment were imposed for unnecessarily delaying the work or spoiling it. The concept of “Varnasharam” or caste system was originally based on these principles .

The individuals who used to earn their livelihood by engaging themselves in activities such as teaching, sacrifices or state management were designated as Brahmins while those specializing in fighting were termed as Kshatiyas. From the 14th century B. C. to the later half of the 10th century A. D. , the relationships between the employer and employees were marked by justice and equity. As regards Indian economy in Mediaeval India, although there was a lull because of numerous foreign aggressions for around 700 years, during the Mughal rules, the Indian trade and commerce were revived.

Several “Karkhanas” were established at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Ahmedabad and various other places. The Plantation Act of 1863 makes provisions that if the workers failed to complete their period of contract, they should be imprisoned for a period not exceeding three months. Explicitly, the working conditions in the tea plantations were extremely bad. Accordingly, the workers were entirely helpless in the face of the organized and powerful European planters. In 1905, the printers’ Union at Calcutta and in 1907, the Postal Union at Bombay was established.

In 1922, the indentured labor system involving migration of India Labor to other countries on contract basis was abolished as a result of a strong National movement. In the same year, the Central Labor Board was established to federate the different unions in the Bombay city and the All India Trade Union Congress was organized. It may be noted that the reliable statistics of trade union growth are not available for the period before the formal implementation of the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926.

Betw2een 1939-40 and 1944-45 the number of registered trade unions increased from 666 to 865. During period 1947-1960 industrial employment rose by 2. 8 times, the total claimed union membership also went up by 2. 3 times. In 1960, 45 percent of the total industrial workforce was claimed to be unionized. Today, the total membership is estimated to be around 4. 3 million i. e. 28 percent of total workforce. MB0027 Human Resource Management Assignment 1 Answer the following questions: Q1:Elaborate on the evolution of Human Resource Management.

Ans: Kautilya provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources as early as 4th century B. C. in his treatise titled “Arth –Shastra”. As it has been described in the book, there prevailed logical procedures and principles in respect of labor organizations such as Shreni or guild system and co-operative sector. The wages were paid strictly in terms of quantity and quality of work turned out and punishment were imposed for unnecessarily delaying the work or spoiling it.

The concept of “Varnasharam” or caste system was originally based on these principles . The individuals who used to earn their livelihood by engaging themselves in activities such as teaching, sacrifices or state management were designated as Brahmins while those specializing in fighting were termed as Kshatiyas. From the 14th century B. C. to the later half of the 10th century A. D. , the relationships between the employer and employees were marked by justice and equity.

As regards Indian economy in Mediaeval India, although there was a lull because of numerous foreign aggressions for around 700 years, during the Mughal rules, the Indian trade and commerce were revived. Several “Karkhanas” were established at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Ahmedabad and various other places. The Plantation Act of 1863 makes provisions that if the workers failed to complete their period of contract, they should be imprisoned for a period not exceeding three months. Explicitly, the working conditions in the tea plantations were extremely bad.

Accordingly, the workers were entirely helpless in the face of the organized and powerful European planters. In 1905, the printers’ Union at Calcutta and in 1907, the Postal Union at Bombay was established. In 1922, the indentured labor system involving migration of India Labor to other countries on contract basis was abolished as a result of a strong National movement. In the same year, the Central Labor Board was established to federate the different unions in the Bombay city and the All India Trade Union Congress was organized.

It may be noted that the reliable statistics of trade union growth are not available for the period before the formal implementation of the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926. Betw2een 1939-40 and 1944-45 the number of registered trade unions increased from 666 to 865. During period 1947-1960 industrial employment rose by 2. 8 times, the total claimed union membership also went up by 2. 3 times. In 1960, 45 percent of the total industrial workforce was claimed to be unionized. Today, the total membership is estimated to be around 4. 3 million i. e. 28 percent of total workforce.

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