Database Management System


Alumni management system is implemented in various schools around the globe, so it can help the student to get together when there is the need to get together, maybe for a get together Dinner and so on. B. SCOPE /OVERVIEW The Online alumni system is designed to maintain the details of the past student, so when the school wants to check the year a student graduated for some unforeseen circumstances. Using this project, the administrator registers each past student into the directory and gives them their username and password so they can login and update their profile. The Alumni Management System provides following features. Members Directory * Online photo gallery * Comment posting facility C. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The aim of the software is to develop a software that helps the university to keep good record of their old students, in order to refer to them when necessary, even on occasions where they want to make a year book for the graduating class or something. D. PROJECT OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVE: The central objective of this project is to provide facility for record system for the university committee. In previous system (i. e. Manual System), the student has to queue up to register his/her name in the alumni register on paper.

This was the fully time consuming, expensive etc. Through this product, he can update his database maybe when he is married and he wants to change his status to married and so on. 2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS System analysis is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and using the facts to improve the system. System analysis specifies what the system should do. A system is a set of components that interact to accomplish some purpose. * Identifying the drawback of the existing system * Identify the need for conversion * Perform feasibility study * Identify hardware, software and database requirements Create a system definition that forms the foundation for subsequent work A. SYSTEM STUDY Overview of the Existing System In the existing system user can face so much problems. They have to waist so much time for the registering. This is the time consuming task. Sometimes user is very tired then they face the so much problem. Sometimes user feel the laziness, this is also failure for the existing system. B. FEASIBILITY STUDY The feasibility of a project can be ascertained in terms of technical factors, economic factors, or both. A feasibility study is documented with a report showing all the ramifications of the project.

Technical Feasibility Technical feasibility refers to the ability of the process to take advantage of the current state of the technology in pursuing further improvement. The technical capability of the personnel as well as the capability of the available technology should be considered. Technology transfer between geographical areas and cultures needs to be analyzed to understand productivity loss (or gain) due to differences (see Cultural Feasibility). Since we are using PHP 5, Tomcat 6. 0 and so on technically our project is feasible. Economic Feasibility

This involves the feasibility of the proposed project to generate economic benefits. A benefit-cost analysis and a breakeven analysis are important aspects of evaluating the economic feasibility of new industrial projects. The tangible and intangible aspects of a project should be translated into economic terms to facilitate a consistent basis for evaluation. Cultural Feasibility Cultural feasibility deals with the compatibility of the proposed project with the cultural setup of the project environment. In labor-intensive projects, planned functions must be integrated with the local cultural practices and beliefs.

For example, religious beliefs may influence what an individual is willing to do or not do. Social Feasibility Social feasibility addresses the influences that a proposed project may have on the social system in the project environment. The ambient social structure may be such that certain categories of workers may be in short supply or nonexistent. The effect of the Project on the social status of the project participants must be assessed to ensure compatibility. It should be recognized that workers in certain industries may have certain status symbols within the society. Scope of Feasibility Analysis

In general terms, the elements of a feasibility analysis for a project should cover the following: I. Need Analysis This indicates recognition of a need for the project. The need may affect the organization itself, another organization, the public, or the government. A preliminary study is then conducted to confirm and evaluate the need. A proposal of how the need may be satisfied is then made. Relevant questions that should be asked include: * Is the need significant enough to justify the proposed project? * Will the need still exist by the time the project is completed? * What are the alternate means of satisfying the need? What are the economic, social, environmental, and political impacts of the need? II. Process Work This is the preliminary analysis done to determine what will be required to satisfy the need. The work may be performed by a consultant who is an expert in the project field. The preliminary study often involves system models or prototypes. For technology-oriented projects, artist’s conception and scaled-down models may be used for illustrating the general characteristics of a process. A simulation of the proposed system can be carried out to predict the outcome before the actual project starts. III. Engineering & Design

This involves a detailed technical study of the proposed project. Written quotations are obtained from suppliers and subcontractors as needed. Technology capabilities are evaluated as needed. Product design, if needed, should be done at this time. IV. Cost Estimate This involves estimating project cost to an acceptable level of accuracy. Levels of around -5% to +15% are common at this level of a project plan. Both the initial and operating costs are included in the cost estimation. Estimates of capital investment and of recurring and nonrecurring costs should also be contained in the cost estimate document.

Sensitivity analysis can be carried out on the estimated cost values to see how sensitive the project plan is to the estimated cost values. V. Financial Analysis This involves an analysis of the cash flow profile of the project. The analysis should consider rates of return, inflation, sources of capital, payback periods, breakeven point, residual values, and sensitivity. This is a critical analysis since it determines whether or not and when funds will be available to the project. The project cash flow profile helps to support the economic and financial feasibility of the project. VI. Project Impacts

This portion of the feasibility study provides an assessment of the impact on the proposed project. Environmental, social, cultural, political, and economic impacts may be some of the factors that will determine how a project is perceived by the public. The value added potential of the project should also be assessed. A value added tax may be assessed based on the price of a product and the cost of the raw material used in making the product. The tax so collected may be viewed as a contribution to government coffers. Conclusions and Recommendations The feasibility study should end with the overall outcome of the project analysis.

This may indicate an endorsement or disapproval of the project. Recommendations on what should be done should be included in this section of the feasibility report. 3. SYSTEM DESIGN System design provides the understanding and procedural details necessary for implementing the system recommended in the system study. Emphasis is on translating the performance requirements into design specifications. The design phase is a transition from a user – oriented document (System proposal) to a documented oriented to the programmers or database personnel. A. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION I.

Entity Relationship Diagram It is clear that the physical objects from the previous section the administrator, rooms, customer all correspond to entities in the Entity-Relationship model, and the operations to be done on those entities. Date of Birth Date of Birth SEX SEX NAME NAME Student Student Email Email Address Address IS A IS A Alumnus Alumnus IS A IS A GRADUATION YEAR GRADUATION YEAR GRADUATE STUDENT GRADUATE STUDENT POSTGRADUATE POSTGRADUATE COURSE COURSE DEGREE PROGRAMME DEGREE PROGRAMME COMPUTING TOOLS A. METHODOLOGIES B. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES TOOLS USED FOR DEVELOPING: Language -> PHP

Database -> My SQL Web Server -> APACHE TOMCAT 6. 0 IDE -> NETBEANS Programming language choice affects the productivity and code quality in several ways. Programmers working with high level language achieve better productivity and quality than those working with low level language, because former is more expensive in nature. We have used HTML, PHP scripting languages for the coding as we have to make the software and these languages provide great compatibility and flexibility. Overview of Programming Languages Overview of PHP The PHP technology will be used to interface HTML.

The PHP technology provides a seamless connection and presents an easy to use, PHP-like programming constructs that can be scripted within HTML files. Hypertext preprocessor is a technology for developing web pages that include dynamic content. A PHP page contains standard markup language elements, such as HTML tags, just like a regular web page. A PHP page also contains special PHP elements that allow the server to insert dynamic content in the web page. ADVANTAGES OF PHP 1. PHP supports both scripting and element-based dynamic content. 2. Allows developing custom tag libraries. . PHP pages are precompiled for efficient server processing. 4. PHP pages can be used in combination with servlets that handle the business logic. 5. High Security. . 6. High Quality tool supports. 7. Write Once, Run Everywhere. 8. PHP is vender Neutral Overview of Java Script Java script is a general purpose, prototype based, object oriented scripting language developed jointly by sun and Netscape and is meant for the WWW. Java script borrows most of its syntax from java but also inherits from awk and perl, with some indirect influence from self in its object prototype system.

Java Script is almost as easy to learn as HTML and it can be included directly in HTML documents. Java Script was developed independently of java. Java script is a high level scripting language that does not depend on or expose particular machine representations or operating system services. FEATURES OF JAVA SCRIPT Java script is embedded into HTML documents and is executed with in them. Java script is browser dependent. JavaScript is an interpreted language that can be interpreted by the browser at run time. Java script is loosely typed language. Java script is an object-based language.

Java script is an Event-Driven language and supports event handlers to specify the functionality of a button. The Struts framework provides the flexibility to develop the much less coupled applications. It generalizes and strictly implements MVC-model View Controller Architecture. That is the basic need of our architecture. Overview of Apache Tomcat Apache Tomcat is a servlet container developed by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). Tomcat implements the Java Servlet and the Java Server Pages (JSP) specifications from Sun Microsystems, and provides a “pure Java” HTTP web server environment for Java code to run.

Tomcat should not be confused with the Apache web server, which is a C implementation of an HTTP web server; these two web servers are not bundled together. Apache Tomcat includes tools for configuration and management, but can also be configured by editing XML configuration files. Overview of MySQL MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system (DBMS) which has, according to MySQL AB, more than 10 million installations. MySQL is owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, which holds the copyright to most codebase. Libraries for ccessing MySQL databases are available in all major programming languages with language-specific APIs. In addition, an ODBC interface called MyODBC allows additional programming languages that support the ODBC interface to communicate with a MySQL database, such as ASP or ColdFusion. The MySQL server and official libraries are mostly implemented in ANSI C. C. PLATFORM I. HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS Processor: Pentium III or higher RAM: 128 MB or More Hard Disk: 20 GB or More Modem: 56KBPS / LAN Card II. SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS Operating System: Windows XP, VISTA 7. Web Server: Apache

Front End: JSP Back End: MySQL Scripts: JavaScript Language: JAVA III. User Interface Requirements The user of the proposed system requires that the developed software should be user friendly, have security access, and ensure the privacy of the administrator and produce results in timely manner. The users are not frequently exposed to the on-line hotel management, so the system interface to the user must be simple and understandable. The web pages must be user-friendly and must be in an easy-to-use style. The user must be able to easily switch among various I/O screens.

The product is well designed so that it can be used easily by layman and also the users who are novices to the system. The system should be designed in such a way that only authorized users should be allowed to login to the system. The user interface should be as interactive as possible. A user-friendly interface must be provided so that the user can easily interact with the system and comprehend things in a quicker and easier way. The system must provide reliable and up-to-date information. The application should be efficient so that the user does not spend much time in training.

Consistency will increase the confidence of the user in the reliability of the application. The user must be limited with a small set of operations to achieve the result. The application should be visually and conceptually clear. The interface should accommodate user mistakes easily and fast. It should minimize the errors and should handle them peacefully. IV. Database Requirements The database should be designed in such a way that it enhances the efficient storage, retrieval and manipulation of all the information associated. For instance all general information regarding an item attribute should be stored in a particular table.

The concerned users should have the facility to query to the database and supply the basic information easily. Security mechanisms should be provided so that no confidential details should be accessible to unauthorized persons. The database should be organized in such a way that it helps in preparing various essential summaries needed for users. V. Functional Requirements The various functional requirements of the system can be summarized as: 1. A home page that is user friendly and ambiguous. 2. Administrator Login Facility 3. Links to other related sites. 4.

Ability of Administrator to perform any tasks which you can see in my snapshots (below) and in my running project. 5. A login page for alumnus to create a new user if not registered VI. Non-Functional Requirements Non-functional requirements define the system properties and constraints that arise through user needs, because of the budgeted constraints or organizational policies, or because of the need for interoperability with other software or due to the external factors such as safety regulations privacy registrations and so on. VII. Other Requirements and Constraints

Performance Requirements * The database should be centralized and secure. * The system should be user friendly and easily accessible * The system must be reliable. Design Requirements The main objectives of input design are: * Controlling the amount of input * Keeping the process simple, avoiding errors. * The best thing in the input design is to achieve all the objectives mentioned in the simplest manner possible. The main objectives of output design are: * Identifying the specific outputs. * Creating reports for displaying and storing information. 4. MILESTONES A.

TIMELINES I. DISTRIBUTION OF TASKS AND SUBTASKS II. TEAM MEMBERS RESPONSIBILITIES Each project member has been given a role to perform which will make the project work go smoothly. | | | | | | | | | | | | III. PROPOSED TIMEFRAME FOR EACH TASK AS ASSIGNED B. DEADLINES FOR EACH TASK AND MODULES C. PROPOSED DUE DATE 5. POSSIBLE TEST CASES AND PLANS 6. LIMITATIONS The Hotel Management System can be used for any organization that may require detailed information at one time or the other. This application covers a relatively large scope more than is highlighted in this project work.

There is always room for improvement depending on the intending area of application. For the purpose of this project, however, we will use Arzu Hotels as a set case. The limitations of this project are: * Unavailability of sufficient time due to tight academic schedule. * Lack of internet connection to perform necessary research Despite these limitations, we will be able to design a functional Hotel Management System. 7. CONCLUSION From a proper analysis of positive points and constraints on the component, it can be safely concluded that the product is a highly efficient GUI based component.

This application is working properly and meeting to all user requirements. This component can be easily plugged in many other systems. 8. APPENDIX I. Programming Programming is not only a creative activity but also an intellectually rigorous discipline. It is the part where the design is actually translated into the machine readable form which is called program. II. Programming Principles The main activity of coding phase is to translate design into code. If we translate the structure of the design properly, we will have structured programs. A structured program doesn’t just “happen”.

It is the end product of series of efforts that try to understand the problem and develop a structured, understandable solution plan. It is all impossible to write a good structured program based on unstructured poor design . The coding phase affects both testing and maintenance , profoundly the time spent in coding is small percentage of the total software cost, while testing and maintenance consume the major percentage . The goal of coding phase is not to simplify the job of the tester and maintainer. III. Programming style A well written program is more easily read and understood both by the author and by others who work that program.

A good Programming style is characterized by the following: * Simplicity * Readability * Good documentation * Changeability * Predictability * Good Structure IV. Selection of Coding Language All the programs coded should be based on a standard which can tend to the needs of all readers, i. e. it should provide degree of predictability in programs of a common type. There are many aspects to what the programs must do so to enable the different users to comfortably work on it. For example the program should: * Be corrective of the solution * Have maximum speed of execution * Be comprehensive and east to maintain

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