Curriculum and Material Development
The focus here is on the teaching practices that occur within a program, how these can be characterized, and how quality teaching can be achieved and maintained.
Teaching Model and Principles
This book has emphasized the curriculum as a network of interacting system involving teacher, learners, materials, school, administrator, and curriculum planners, and choices ay one level affect other elements in the system. Thus the choice of a particular curriculum philosophy or ideology implies a particular model of teaching.
Roberts (1998, 103) compares two teaching models implicit in many language program: the operative model and the problem problem-solving model: Operative is model the teacher is restricted to meeting the requirements of a centralized system, such as the delivery of a textbook as planned, to a set timescale. Such as limited role, limited to that of curriculum transmission, implies training objectives based of mastery of a set of competencies determined by the centralized syllabus. Problem solver is model a decentralized curriculum gives teachers greater autonomy in making educational decisions.
A diversified teacher to able to diagnose problems and adapt materials and design original learning activities. The former can viewed as a teaching model compatible with a mechanistic model of organization design and the latter to the organic model. In language teaching programs, teaching models are often based on particular methods or approaches. For example: The communicative approach : the focus of teaching is authentic communication; extensive use is made of pair and group activities that involve negotiation of meaning and information sharing.
Fluency is a priority. The cooperative learning model : students work in cooperative learning situations and are encouraged to work together on common task and to coordinate their efforts to complete task. Rewards system in group.The process approach : In writing classes, student take part in activities that develop their understanding of writing as a process. The whole-language approach : Students are taught to read and write naturally, with a focus on real communication, authentic texts and reading and writing for pleasure.
Rather than drawing approach or method, the teaching model in a program in a program may be based on a coherent set of participles that reflect how teaching and learning should be approached. This is the teaching philosophy of the program and serves as the basis for decisions about classroom methodology. Articulating a teaching philosophy in this way can help clarify decision relating to choice of classroom activities, materials, and teacher evaluation.
In the case of a teaching model that is based on an existing teaching model such as communicative language teaching, the philosophy and principles of the model are accepted as givens : teachers are expected to be familiar with them and to put the principles into practice. Teacher teaching in different ways. Even thought two teachers work toward identical goals they may choose different ways of getting there. Teachers bring to teaching their own personal beliefs and principles and these help to account for how they teach.
Teachers principles are a product of their experience, their training and their beliefs. Bellows are the example of teacher’ principles cited by Breen are:
- selectively focus on the form of the language
- selectively focus on vocabulary or meaning
- enable the learners to use the language
- address learners’ mental-processing capacities
- make the new language familiar and manageable
- monitor learner progress and provide feedback
- facilitate learner responsibility
- manage the lesson and the group
Maintaining Good Teaching Quality teaching can’t simply be assumed to happen. It results from an active, ongoing effort on the part of teachers and administrators to ensure that good teaching practices are being maintained. This involved the establishment of shared commitment to quality teaching and the selection of appropriate measures to bring it about. The following are strategies that address this issue. 1. Monitoring Information needs to be collected regularly on all aspects of the program to find out how teacher are teaching the course, what is working well or proving difficult and what issues teachers need to resolve.
Monitoring can take place through formal and informal mechanism such as group meetings, written reports, classroom visit, and student’s evaluations. Regular observation of teachers by other teachers or supervisors can provide positive feedback on teaching as well as help identify areas that might need attention. Observation may, but need not, involve evaluation. Peer observation can also be used to enable teachers to share approaches and teaching strategies. This might include information on how students complete a learning activity or the type and frequency or questions the teacher uses.
Teacher can also make use of self observation to see what it tells them about their teaching. Timely identification of problems in a program is essential to ensure that small problems do not develop into bigger ones. Good communication systems can help ensure that problems are brought to the attention of teachers or supervisors for timely resolutions. Teachers often work in isolation and do not always have the opportunities to benefit from the collective expertise of their colleagues.
One way to avoid this is to build on opportunities for collaborative planning, as when teachers work together in pairs or groups on course planning, material development and lesson planning. During the process of planning, potential problems can often be identified and resolved. Documentation and sharing of good practices. A great deal of excellent teaching goes on in schools, but much of it is known only to individual teachers or supervisors. Teachers should be encouraged to report on their positive teaching experiences.
For example, teacher might write short case accounts of a successful course they taught and share them with other teachers or post them in the Internet. They could write short articles for an in-house newsletter or teacher’ magazine. Classes can be video-recorded to provide input to workshops or teaching-training sessions. Meetings or “mini-conferences” can be arranged in which teachers report on classroom innovations or other activities they wish to share with colleagues. 6. Self-study of the program Self-study involves a study of a program’s practices and values as part of the process of self-evaluation and review.
It is part of the process of demonstrating a commitment to quality and to long-term goals and professional development. A self-study should be undertaken every three to five years and involves teachers, administrator, and students in a process of examining all aspect of a schools’ operations (Kelly 1988) self-study involves a study of a program’s practices and values as part of the process of self-evaluation and review. It is part of the process of demonstrating a commitment to quality and to long-term goals and professional development.
A self-study should be undertaken every three to five years and involves teachers, administrator, and students in a process of examining all aspect of a schools’ operations (Kelly 1988). An appraisal system is likely to have greater credibility if it represents both teachers and administrators views. It should therefore be produced collaboratively and represent all point of view. However, any appraisal system needs to recognize that there is no single correct way conduct of teaching. Teacher have different styles of teaching, and two teachers may conduct their classes very differently yet both be excellent teachers.
Therefore, criteria for the complexity of teaching as well as the fact that it is a uniquely individual activity. In language teaching, there are no universally accepted criteria for assessing teacher effectiveness and several different kind of appraisal approaches are used. Criteria are generally established on an institutional basis, drawing on general principles for teacher effectiveness and factors specific to the type of program in which the teacher work. Murdoch (1997) contains a questionnaire designed to the perceived qualities and competencies of good English teacher, and organized according to three areas. .
A teaching appraisal may be carried out by a supervisor, a colleague, the teacher himself or herself, or students. Appraisal by a supervisor: supervisor often assume the role of appraiser, though many teacher find that they prefer appraisal to be carried by someone other than a supervisor.
The presence of a supervisor in the classroom may inhibit the teacher from performing to his or her best. In addition, if the supervisor is largely an administrator rather than a classroom teacher, he or she may not have a good understanding of the classroom situation, resulting in misperceptions about different aspect of the lesson. In order to provide some consistency to appraisals, checklists are often used. Appraisal by a colleague: peer appraisal is generally less threatening for a teacher than appraisal by a colleague and may result in more constructive feedback. A colleague will often have a better understanding of the difficulties a teacher faces and perhaps be able to suggest useful easy of addressing them.
Self-appraisal : teacher themselves are often in a good position to assess their own teacher and self-appraisal is perhaps the threatening form of teacher assessment. Self-appraisal may take a variety of forms : Lesson reports : The teacher may use structured descriptions of a lesson whit an evaluation of each component. Teaching journal : The teacher keep a regular journal about his or her class, and describe and reflect on different aspects of planning and teaching the course. Audio/video recording : The teacher may record a number of lesson of his or her class or arrange to have someone else record them, review the recordings, and comment on the strengths or weaknesses of the lesson. Student appraisal : Student are in a good position to assess the effectiveness of teaching, although the extent to which they are able to do so depends on the type of feedback instrument they are given.
Although students often critical, they usually have a good sense of whether a teacher prepares his or her lesson, teacher relevant content, provides lesson that are engaging, relevant and at an appropriate level of difficulty.
Learning is not the mirror image of teaching. The extent to which teaching achieves its goals will also dependent on how successfully learners have been considered in the planning and delivery process. The following factors may affect how successfully a course is received by learners. .
Understanding of the course Understanding of the course very important to ensure the learners understanding to the goals of the course, the reason for the way it is organized and taught, and the approaches to learning they will be encouraged to take. b. View of learning Learners enter a course with their own views of teaching and learning and these may not be identical to those of their teachers. Al Corso and Kalantzis (1985) found that teacher rates the usefulness of ommunicative activities highly, whereas their learners tended to favor more traditional activities such as grammar exercises, copying written material, memorizing, and drill work. Course may assume a variety of different learner roles, such as:
- Manager of his or her own learning
- Independent learner
- Need analyst
- Collaborator and team member
- Peer tutor
Learning styles may be an important factor in the success of teaching and may not necessarily reflect those that teachers recommended. In a study of the learning style, Willing found four different learner types such as: Concrete learners These learners preferred learning by games, picture, films and video, taking in pairs, learning through the use of cassettes, and going on excursions . Analytical learners These learners liked studying grammar, studying English books, studying alone, finding their own mistakes, having problems to work on, and learning through reading newspapers . Communicative learners. This group liked to learn by observing and listening to native speakers, taking to friends in English, watching TV in English, learning English words by hearing them and learning by conversations Authority-oriented learners These students liked the teacher to explain everything, writing everything in a notebook, having their own textbook, learning to read, studying grammar, and learning English words by seeing them . Motivation Beside of learning style, motivations also important to find out what the learner’s motivations are for taking the course. e. Support mechanism provided for learners are another component of course delivery. These include the kinds of feedback learners will get about their learning and opportunities that are provided for faster or slower learners.
In this paper we are discussed about “providing for effective teaching” which have four factors, which are: Institutional factors Institutional factor has correlation about the institution organizational, institutional quality, good internal communication between administrator and the teacher also professional teacher and opportunities for developing teacher’s ability. Teacher factor discuss about teacher’ skill and qualification, the aspect for supporting teacher to do their responsibility.
Teaching process is the way to monitoring process teaching-learning based on the model and principle which chosen by its institution, than maintenance when found the error process and also evaluating teaching. Learners factors The last factor to achieve quality teaching is learner factor. Learner factor is the way to know what the learner need, how to choose the appropriate learning style, giving motivation and also support to the pupils
- Jack C. Richards. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press