Bio book outline
All organisms in the forest Population- Group of relatable monkeys , all Individuals In a single area Organism; ring tailed lemur an Individual living thing Organ system- Nervous system ,nervous system controls Its actions, organs working getter. Organ- made up of, similar cells that performs a specific function tissue Cell-fundamental unit of life Organelle- membrane enclosed structure that performs a specific function Molecule- cluster of small chemical units atoms held together by molecular bond Deoxyribonucleic acid CHI. Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass Element- a substance that can’t be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means. 92 elements Compound-two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio. More common than lone elements. Trace elements- in the body only make up about 0. 04% of your body weight but vital for energy processing. Electrons- two revolve on an orbital(discrete volume of space where E are found) around the nucleus at about the speed of light.
Move around the nucleus only at specific energy levels called Electron Shells Protons + Neutrons = Mass # The number of ejectors In an atoms outer valence shell determines Its overall chemical properties. Atomic number-the first number (number of protons) particles and energy. Medical diagnosis and treatment: Used to tag chemicals that accumulate in the body Phosphorous in bones, inject a tracer isotope. PET scanner produces an image of where the radiation collects, Shimmers patient. Deposits of plaque in the brain beta-myeloid show up on PET.
This test allows researchers to monitor the effectiveness of new drugs on people. Orbital- 1. Each ring can only have 2 electrons, 2. 2nd and 3rd ring: four orbital, Outer ring can hold 8 3. Number of electrons increases from left to right per. Table Valence Shell- Number of electrons on outermost ring. Determines an atoms. Chemical properties. Valence number; number of additional electrons needed to fill the threshold, bonding capacity Chemical Bonds: two atoms with incomplete tortoiseshells react and donate electrons to complete their outer shells.
Covalent Bond; two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shells. TWO or more atoms that share this bond are called Molecule. Electronegative- an toms attraction for shared electrons. Unpopular covalent bonds- electrons shared evenly between atoms. When atoms of a molecule equally pull on electrons. Happens in molecules of same elements. Methane also has a unpopular bond because carbon and hydrogen atoms rant that different. 02, H2O Polar covalent bonds- Molecules with different electromagnetisms attract.
The unequal sharing of electrons, pulling shared negatively charges closer to a the more electronegative atom. H2O 0 Oxygen is slightly negative and Hydrogen slightly positive. Unequal sharing of electrons. Polar Molecule- polar covalent bond and V shape molecule. Slightly unequal distribution of charges. Slightly negative points at the V. H2O 0 Slightly positive on hydrogen, points to the O Ion- an atom or molecule with an electrical charge due to gain or loss of one or more electrons. 1 Two ions with opposite charges attract catheter. When the attraction holds together its an Ionic Bond.
Salt- sodium chloride Nasal, crystals in nature. Sodium chloride always 1;1 ratio. An Hydrogen Bond- a weaker bond that holds together briefly than separates. The charged regions in each water molecule are attracted to opposite lay charged regions on neighbor molecules. Because the positively charged region in this bond is always a hydrogen atom it gets its name. Each hydrogen of a water molecule can form a hydrogen bond with a nearby partial negative oxygen of another water molecule. Can bond to as many as 4 partners. Heat absorbed when they break, heat is released when they form. When it cools) Overarching Theme: The structures of atoms and molecules determines the way they behave. Reactant- Starting materials to the left of the arrow Product- to the right , results from chemical reaction. Cohesion-the tendency for molecules of the same kid to stick together. The evaporation of water is an upward force on the water within a leaf. Adhesion- the clinging of one substance to another. Counters the downward pull of gravity, water sticking to the veins of a plant. Surface tension- the measure of how difficult it is to break or stretch the surface of a liquid.
Hydrogen bonds gig water an unusually high surface tension Evaporative Cooling- When a substance evaporates and the surface of the liquid that mains cools down. The molecules with the greatest energy leave. Solution- A uniform mixture of two or more substances. The dissolving agent is the Solvent (water) and a substance that is dissolved (salt) is the solute. Aqueous Solution- where water is the solvent. How salt mixes with water. The partial negative Oxygen in H2O is attracted to the slightly positive An+ sodium ions and the slightly positive hydrogen ions are attracted to the slightly negative chloride CLC- Dissociate-break apart into ions.
Hydrogen ions H+ and Hydroxide OH- re very reactive. Some chemicals contribute H=, some remove. A impound that donates H+ to solutions is Acid- has a higher concentration of H+ them from a solution. More basic solution has higher hydroxide OH- and lower hydrogen H+. PH scale- potential odd hydrogen. O most acidic, 14 most basic. Each unit represents a lox times change. PH 2 has lox more H+ than pH 3. 7 is equal. PH of blood plasma is about 7. 4 Buffers-biological substances that minimize changes in PH. Blood buffers acid more than water. Acid Rain- precipitation with pH lower than 5. Ocean acidification- dissolving CA in seawater lowers oceans PH. CA reacts with water to create carbonic acid. Calcification, how some organism produce shells. Heat- the amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a body of water. Temperature- measures the intensity of the heat. The average speed of molecules rather than the total amount of heat. Chapter 3. The molecules of cells (crabs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid) Variety of polymers makes up for uniqueness of species. Living organisms built from the same 20 amino acids.
Small molecules common to all are ordered into large molecules which vary from species to species. Carbon is attached to almost all molecules a cell makes and is unparalleled in its ability to form large and complex molecules. Organic Compounds- carbon-based compounds, Carbon has 4 electrons on the valence shell that holds 8, room for 4 covalent bonds. A great connecting point to line up 4 different directions. Hydrocarbons- compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon. Methane, and propane are hydrocarbon fuels. Carbon skeleton- chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule.
Can be branched or unbranded May include double bonds and some are in rings. Isomers- Compounds with the same formula but different structural arrangements. Some molecules can have the same number of atoms, but have different three emotional shapes because of the location of the double bond. Sometimes harmful effects. One isomer of methamphetamine is the addictive illegal drug. The other is medicine for sinus congestion. The shape of a molecule determines the it functions in the body. Different shapes of isomers result in unique properties and greatly add to diversity of organic molecules.
Hydrophilic- water loving, soluble in water. The first 5 functional groups act this way. Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carbonyl, amino, phosphate. Groups, hydroxyl, amino, and phosphate don’t contain Carbon 1 . Hydroxyl- hydrogen atom bonded to oxygen, then binned to carbon skeleton. Alcohols. 2. Carbonyl- carbon atom linked with double bond to oxygen. If carbonyl group is at the end of a carbon skeleton its an allayed. If its within the chain it is called a ketene. 3. Carbonyl- carbon double bond to an oxygen atom and also a hydroxyl group.
Carboxylic acids. Acetic acid like vinegar. 4. Amino group-nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen and the carbon skeleton. Iconic compounds with an amino group are called Amines. The building blocks of proteins are called amino acids. They contain an amino and carbonyl group. 5. Phosphate group- phosphorous bonded to 4 oxygen atoms. Compounds with hostage groups are called organic phosphates- involved in energy transfer TAP. 6. Methyl group- Consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen. Compounds with methyl groups are called mentholated compounds.
Macromolecules- crabs, proteins, nucleic acids might be gigantic, thousands of atoms. Polymers- Chains of smaller molecules. Consists of many identical or similar building blocks. Dehydration Reaction, a reaction that removes a molecule of water. Cells link monomers to make polymers this way. Links two monomers together Hydrolysis- the breaking down of macromolecules, digesting polymers to make monomers available. In digestion, the proteins are broken down into amino acids by hydrolysis, new proteins are formed in your body cells from these monomers in dehydration reactions.
Both dehydration and hydrolysis require enzymes- specialized macromolecules that speed of the chemical reaction in cells. Proteins- are built of only 20 amino acids, DNA is built from Just 4 kinds of monomers called Nucleotides Carbohydrate- a class of molecules ranging from small sugar macroeconomics, to large polysaccharide Crab monomers are monsoons ( single sugars) glucose and fructose Disaccharide- cells construct one of these from two incarcerations by dehydration action. Sucrose most common, (glucose linked to fructose) from sugarcane and sugar beets.
Maltose also common, beer, malted milk, High fructose corn syrup- the missionaries of sucrose Polysaccharide- are macromolecules, thousands of monomaniacs linked together by dehydration reactions. Glycogen, and cellulose. Starch- Storage polysaccharide in plants of all glucose monomers. Bans from which plant cells gather glucose for energy. Glycogen- animals store glucose this way, a different polysaccharide. Stored in your liver and muscle cells. Cellulose- tough walls that surround the cell, most abundant compound.
Not a nutrient for humans because animals can’t hydrology the linkages. The cellulose that phosphorous the body unchanged is called insoluble fiber. Bath tools are mostly cellulose, very hydrophilic absorbs water because of hydroxyl groups. Chitin- another polysaccharide used by insects and crustaceans to build their cells, Both starch and cellulose and polymers of glucose but have different shaped bonds. Starch is for sugar storage, cellulose is a structural polysaccharide that is the main material of the plant cell wall.
Lipids- diverse compounds grouped together because of one trait: they don’t mix ell in water. Hydrogen and carbon linked by unpopular covalent bonds. Lipids are Hydrophobic- water fearing Fat- a large lipid made up of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol an local with three carbons, each with a hydroxyl group (OH-). + a hydrocarbon chain (16-18 carbon atoms in Engel) the unpopular hydrocarbon is why fats are hydrophobic. Unsaturated fatty acid- has one fewer hydrogen atom on each carbon of the double bond.
Saturated Fatty acids- Fatty acids with no double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain that have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Corn Oil, Olive oil, vegetable oil. Trans Fats- When you see hydrogenated vegetable oil, unsaturated fats have been converted to saturated fats by adding hydrogen. Health risks, contribute to cardiovascular disease plaque, Omega-3 acids protect A monounsaturated fat has fatty acid with a single double bond in its carbon chain. A Polyunsaturated fat has a fatty acid with several double bonds.
Phosphoric- major component of cell membranes. Contain only two fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of three. Hydrophilic phosphate on one end and hydrophobic fatty acids on the other trap water inside, the membrane. Steroids- are lipids with four fused carbon skeleton rings. Cholesterol- common in animal cell membranes, starting material for making steroids and sex hormones. Proteins-a polymer arrangement of 20 amino acids 20 amino monomers. Amino Acids- all have an amino group and a carbonyl group, which makes it acid.
Peptide Bond- Cells Join amino acids together In a dehydration reaction that that links the carbonyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the next amino acid as a water molecule is removed. Both depicted and disaccharide the monomers are Joined by dehydration reactions. Denomination- polypeptide chains unravel loosing their specific shape and function The function of each protein is a consequence of its specific shape, which is lost when protein denatures. A proteins shape depends on four levels of structure Primary Structure- is its unique sequence of amino acids Secondary- Coiling of a polypeptide into local patterns..
Cooling of the polypeptide chain in a secondary structure called an ALPHA HELIX, leads to a BETA PLEATED SHEATH. Tertiary- the overall three dimensional shape of a polypeptide, determines the function of a protein. Quaternary structure- two or more polypeptide chains one macromolecule. Collagen, a fibrous protein with three helical polypeptides intertwined into a larger ripple helix. Incorrectly folded proteins = alchemies and Parkinson. If a genetic mutation changes the primary structure of a protein, how might this destroy the protein functions?
The amino acid sequence affects the secondary structure, which affects the tertiary, then the quarterly, Thus the primary structure determines the shape of a protein, its function depends on shape. A chaos could eliminate function. Nucleic Acids Gene- the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a discrete unit of reticence. DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid, one of the two polymers called nucleic acid. One of the too polymers called Nucleic acid. Provided direction for its own replication, as a cell divides its genetic instructions are passed to each daughter cell.
RNA- ribonucleic acid, illustrates the main roles of the SE two types of nucleic acids the production of proteins. A gene directs the synthesis of an RNA molecule. RNA cell. Translates nucleic acid language into protein language Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides Nucleotides- the monomers that make up nucleic acids. Each contain 3 parts, At the center a five carbon sugar, negatively charged phosphate group, nitrogenous base. Each DNA nucleotide has one of four nitrogenous bases, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, ND Guanine. RNA contains, GAG U racial instead of thymine.