Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Table of contents

Autism Spectrum Disorder – Causes, Reasons, and Treatment

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as a developmental disability that affects people’s personalities based on how they interact with the world. However, Sparks and Dager define ASD as “a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs one’s ability to communicate and interact with others.” Various ASD definitions are known to be universal since they recognize it as a spectral condition. In his study, Umekage indicates that ASD is a hidden disability coupled with fetal brain damage as well as impairment of neural vitro development. Characterized by interests, activities, and repetitive behaviors, ASD is so complex that it varies from one case to another. Despite various studies on the reasons, causes, and treatment of ASD, there is a relatively unknown rationale for its causes. Chandler and Baird posit that people with ASD need different kinds of support since their ways of development and learning differ from every individual. The aim of this paper is to discuss the causes, reasons, and treatment of ASD.

Causes of ASD

Although there are undetermined causes of ASD, scientists as well as medical practitioners believe that an amalgamation of genetic and environmental factors are the two major causes of ASD (Fitzgerald and Geschwind, 2013). To start with, the cause of ASD via genetic factors is not a simple process, but a complex of progression that involves multiple genes.

Causes of ASD – Genetics

Autism Spectrum Disorder

As indicated by Schechtman’s study, the rate of ASD development in identical twins as well as monozygotic is higher than rates in dizygotic and same-sex fraternal twins. This indicates that fraternal twins only share some genes, while identical twins have equal genes and therefore genes contribute much to autism. More so, Brothers, as well as sisters of children with autism, have a high level of autism. From another perspective, Smith, and John in their research attributed that siblings share certain problems such as language as well as learning difficulties if one of the siblings has autism. However, it is not clear if autism is inherited as well as more general predisposition difficulties.

To modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay
Contact Us Today

Causes of ASD – Environmental Factors

Secondly, ASD can be caused by environmental factors. Environmental toxins such as mercury and thimerosal vaccines cause autism stems. More so, congenital rubella infection is one of the environmental factors that cause ASD. However, Goin-Kochel and Myers dispute that there are any clarity environmental factors causing ASD and therefore more studies need to be done. Rich and Isager  adds “some of the evidence proposed for environmental factors is based on case reports, which are often difficult to interpret.”

Reasons for ASD

ASD as mentioned earlier, ASD can be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors, however, we have reasons ASD occurs. First, Autism exists when a single gene known as fragile X syndrome (FXS) exists in the blood. FXS is defined as a syndrome that is coupled with autism as well as intellectual disability. As per Wehner and Hagerman, “Whereas ASD is a behavioral diagnosis, FXS is a medical, or more accurately, genetic diagnosis and therefore when associated with FXS, ASD is caused by the genetic change or mutation in the Fragile X gene.” This alters normal blood circulation, hence ASD. Secondly, individuals are affected by ASD when tuberous sclerosis, chromosome 15q, and other genetic conditions subsist.

ASD Treatment – Medications

Core symptoms associated with ASD have no medication and cure, but we have medications that help to manage high energy levels of ASD, seizures, inability to focus as well as depression symptoms. The first treatment method utilized during ASD is the early intervention service. This method improves an individual’s development, especially children with ASD. These services, such as vitamin therapy, auditory training, facilitated communication and physical therapy improve children’s talk, interaction, and walk. Early intervention services attribute the theory of mind as an explanatory ASD theory that reflects on the symptom criteria (A) of the DSM-5. As per Gallese and Goldman, the theory of mind was created by Uta Frith, Alan Leslie, and Simon Baron-Cohen in 1985 to explain communication persistence as well as social interaction for people with ASD.

ASD Treatment – Behaviours and Communication

The second method used for ASD treatment is the behaviors and communication approaches. This method involves direct, organized, and structural ways for people with ASD to participate in given pediatric events and medication. As per Burrell and Borrego, applied behavior analysis (ABA) is utilized as a treatment of ASD via behavior and communication approach to encourage positive and discourage negative behaviors hence improving various skills needed during ASD treatment. This is in relation to the theory of executive dysfunction which states, “Executive functions (EF) are a set of cognitive skills that are put into practice through autonomous activities.” Most of these EF skills are utilized by ASD patients to boost their flexibility, organization, objectives, and goals, anticipation as well as to be able to control their impulses. Thirdly, ASD can be treated through dietary approaches. Changes in diet, such as using certain foods, mineral supplements, and vitamins help to treat certain ASD effects. However, Talalay and Zimmerman (2014) posit that although the dietary approach is considered as one of the ASD treatment, there is no scientific support and recommendation. Finally, ASD can be treated using complementary and alternative treatments. Treatments associated with complementary and alternative approaches include chelation, biological such as secretin, special diets and body-based systems.


In conclusion, the aim of this paper was to discuss the causes, reasons, and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Being a hidden disability coupled with fetal brain damage as well as impairment of neural vitro development, ASD has varied and complex behaviors hence there is the unknown treatment for core symptoms. Generally, ASD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors such as genes inheritance and environmental toxins respectively. Some of the treatments for ASD as discussed included the use of the early intervention services, the behaviors and communication approaches, dietary approaches, and complementary and alternative treatments. Characterized by interests, activities, and repetitive behaviors, ASD is so complex that it varies from one case to another and therefore its treatments depend on an individual case.

To modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay
Contact Us Today


  1. Akanksha, M., Sahil, K., Premjeet, S. and Bhawna, K. (2011) “Autism spectrum disorders(ASD).” International Journal of research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(5), pp.1541- 1546.
  2. Baird, G., Simonoff, E. and Charman, T. (2016) “Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP).” The Lancet, 368(9531), pp.210-215.
  3. Burrell, L. and Borrego, J. (2012) “Parents’ Involvement in ASD Treatment: What Is Their Role?.” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19(3), pp.423-432.
  4. Buitelaar, K. and Wong, C. (2014) “Psychopharmacological prescriptions for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a multinational study.” Psychopharmacology, 231(6), pp.999-1009.
  5. Chandler, S. and Baird, G. (2015) “Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), pp.921-929.
  6. Fitzgerald, R. and Geschwind, D. (2013) “Autism recurrence in half-siblings: strong support for genetic mechanisms of transmission in ASD.” Molecular psychiatry, 18(2), p.137-140.
  7. Goin-Kochel, P. and Myers, B. (2015) “Congenital versus regressive onset of autism spectrum disorders: Parents’ beliefs about causes.” Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(3), pp.169-179.
  8. Gallese, V. and Goldman, A. (2012) “Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading.” Trends in cognitive sciences, 2(12), pp.493-501.
  9. Hessl, D. and Schneider, A. (2013) “Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). In Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders 79(2), pp. 1320-1324.
  10. Magalhaes, T. and Almeida, J. (2010) “Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorder.” Nature, 466(7304), pp.368-401.
  11. Mercer, L., Creighton, S. and Lewis, S. (2016) “Parental perspectives on the causes of an autism spectrum disorder in their children.” Journal of Genetic Counseling, 15(1), pp.41-50.
  12. Rich, B. and Isager, T. (2012) “Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: an update.” Autism, 12(4), pp.403-414.
  13. Sparks, B. and Dager, S. (2012) “Brain structural abnormalities in young children with an autism spectrum disorder.” Neurology, 59(2), pp.184-192.
  14. Schechtman, M. (2014) “Scientifically unsupported therapies in the treatment of young children with autism disorders.” Psychiatric Annals, 37(9), pp. 79-92.
  15. Smith, S. and John, W. (2011) “Col4a1 mutation cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and genetically modifiable ocular dysgenesis.” Human molecular genetics, 16(7), pp.798- 807.
  16. Talalay, P. and Zimmerman, A. (2014) “Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), pp.50-55.
  17. Umekage, T. (2011) “Association of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Japanese population.” Journal of human genetics, 55(3), pp. 23-32.
  18. Visootsak, J. and Picker, J. (2015) “Advances in the treatment of fragile X syndrome.” Pediatrics, 123(1), pp.378-390.
  19. Wehner, A. and Hagerman, R. (2011) “The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders.” Journal of Developmental & behavioral pediatrics, 22(6), pp.409-417.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyStudyWriters
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business and administrative studies
excellent job!
Customer 452773, May 25th, 2023
excellent job made a 93
Customer 452773, March 22nd, 2023
Business and administrative studies
excellent job thank you Your Score 166.25/ 175- A 1. Current Culture 15% of total grade 18.37 Criterion "1. Current Culture" has textual feedback Criterion Feedback I see interesting points, though, in general they are not about the culture.
Customer 452773, June 4th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
Customer 452773, February 23rd, 2023
Business and administrative studies
Customer 452773, March 3rd, 2023
Thank youuuu
Customer 452729, May 30th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
excellent job
Customer 452773, July 17th, 2023
Human Resources Management (HRM)
excellent, great job
Customer 452773, June 19th, 2023
thank you so much
Customer 452749, June 10th, 2021
Business Studies
Thank you very much for a good job done and a quick turn around time.
Customer 452615, March 31st, 2021
Business and administrative studies
great job as always
Customer 452773, February 26th, 2023
Thank you!!! I received my order in record timing.
Customer 452551, February 9th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own

Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;

  • Dissertations and Thesis
  • Essays
  • All Assignments

  • Research papers
  • Terms Papers
  • Online Classes
Live ChatWhatsApp