Apwh Ch.9 Study Guide

How did the Persian conquest set the stage for the emergence of the Maurya empire? The Persian Conquest left Asia without a ruler, this allowed Chandragupta Maurya to exploit the opportunity and lay down the foundation for the Maurya Empire. . What were five major accomplishments of the emperor Ashoka?

The five major accomplishments of the emperor Ashoka were to conquer Kalinga and bring it under Mauryan control, communicated his policies throughout his realm by inscribing edicts in natural stone formations or pillars he ordered to be erected, established his capital at the fortified city of Pataliputra, created a central treasury to oversee the efficient collection of taxes, and he converted to Buddhism. How did the Gupta administrative practices differ from the Maurya?

Ashoka had insisted on knowing the details of regional affairs, which he closely monitored from his court at Pataliputra. The Guptas left local government and administration, and even the making of basic policy, in the hands of their allies in the various regions of their empire. How did India fit in to the trade along the Silk Road? The Silk Road allowed India to trade cotton, spices, and gems in return for horses and bullion from the west and silk from China. In what ways did the development of trade and manufacturing impact the caste system?

The development of trade and manufacturing led way to new groups of artisans, craftsmen and merchants, many who did not fit easily in the established structure. Individuals that worked in the same craft usually got together to form a guild, a corporate body that watched prices and wages in an industry and provided for the members and their families. What are the fundamental beliefs of Jainism? What has been its long-term impact? Why did it never become as popular as other major world religions? The fundamental beliefs of Jainism are ahisma or nonviolence, that verything has a soul, and that there should not be a caste system. It never became as popular as other major world religions because the ascetic life that is enforced was too extreme. Its long term impact is that it influenced many beliefs in China up until the nineteenth century. What was the popular appeal of Buddhism? How does it compare and contrast to Hinduism? The appeals of Buddhism are that there is less dependence on Brahmins for ritual services, there was no caste or jati, and it did not demand the rigorous asceticism of Jainism.

Buddhism is different from Hinduism because Buddhists use vernacular tongues instead of Sanskrit. It is similar to Hinduism because they both believe in reincarnation, originated in india, made people live according to a certain way (dharma/eightfold path) and they both have the idea of heaven or a spiritual union (nirvana and moksha). How did early Buddhism evolve into Mahayana Buddhism? How did that help spread the religion? Buddhism evolved into Mahayana Buddhism because innovations opened the road to salvation for large numbers of people.

This helped it because education institutes preferred it to the other form of the religion, thus spreading it efficiently. How did Hinduism evolve in India during this period? Three epics of Hinduism, the Mahabharta, Ramayana, and the Bhagavad Gita reinforced the caste system by emphasizing active life and adherence to caste over the ascetic life. This message opened Hinduism to common people who are used to the caste system and allowed Hinduism to overtake Buddhism.

Why did Buddhism eventually lose popularity in India? Buddhism eventually lost popularity in India because it was gradually displaced by Hinduism. It grew remote from the popular masses in India. Terms to know: Boddisatva, Mahayana, stupas, caste system, Jainism, Ashoka Maurya, dharma Dharma: in hinduism, it is the duties and obligations of each caste Caste system: a strict social structure in which classes are determined by heredity, wealth, or occupation Mahayana: a type of Buddhism that offers alvation to everyone and allows popular worship Stupas: stone shrines that contain the remains and relics of the Buddha Boddisatva: In Mahayana Buddhism, a person who can reach nirvana but delays doing so to save suffering beings. Jainism: a religion that believed everything had a soul and believed in extreme aesthetics Ashoka Maurya: the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, he took the Mauryan empire to great heights and converted to Buddhism after battling the Kalinga tribe.

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