Agriculture And Industry In America, 1789-1840

In the early years of the American republic, agriculture and industry had a somewhat ambiguous relationship. While the two often supported each other’s development, they also attracted support from opposing political factions and seemed at odds during the United States’ early history. The conflict between them dates to the republic’s creation, particularly to the political clashes between Thomas Jefferson and Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton. These two figures had sharply different views of what direction the new nation should take.

Jefferson, a Virginia planter who embraced broad democracy, advocated a primarily agrarian nation of farmers and artisans and urged westward migration as a way to broaden agriculture. This scheme drew support from farmers and especially Southern planters, who already despised Hamilton and his Northern urban backers (Wikipedia, “Alexander Hamilton”). On the other hand, Hamilton, a New York lawyer and merchant with strong elitist leanings, had a perhaps more realistic economic vision.

He wanted the new federal government to help financiers and large merchants, thus creating an economy based on manufacturing, trade, and finance – basically, an industrial nation instead of an agrarian one. Jefferson opposed this on political grounds, believing that the United States needed landowning citizens in order to maintain democracy; if Hamilton’s plan succeeded, he claimed, the United States would be a society of poor, propertyless laborers without political freedom (Wikipedia, “Alexander Hamilton).

Despite the political battles over them, American agriculture and industry grew together and supported one another. Initially, agriculture suffered as a result of Hamilton’s policies. As farming families moved westward in large numbers, established Eastern farming communities suffered from loss of labor; this was further exacerbated as rural people moved into towns in search of work. As a result, farmers were forced to change their methods in order to keep their farms viable.

However, they faced pressures from planters who wanted western lands for slavery-based plantations, not for yeoman farmers, who would later form the basis of the Free Soil movement and Republican Party (Wikipedia, “United States History”). Industry, meanwhile, boomed under Hamilton’s financial guidance, thanks to credit and technological innovation. Factories rose along the Eastern seaboard, especially in river towns where water power could be easily harnessed. Farmers were increasingly oriented toward producing raw materials (like hides) for manufacturers, merging the rural and urban as never before.

This included Southern plantations, which turned to cotton production after the cotton gin was invented in 1793, making cotton processing much more efficient. In return, though, industry provided agriculture with devices that could increase productivity, such as the cotton gin, steel plows, and reapers. Though agriculture was extremely important to the American economy, it had been given subordinate political status since Hamilton and political power was firmly on industry’s side, since manufacturing and finance were more profitable and influential.

Also, the industrial North, which depended on free labor, grew increasingly critical of the South’s dependence on slavery. Meanwhile, pro-slavery Southerners saw the factory system as little better than slavery, since few employers paid workers well or were concerned with their employees’ well-being. Urban slums grew near factories by the 1830s, often housing recent immigrants living in squalid conditions (Wikipedia, “United States History”). To rural people, the manufacturing city seemed shabby, poor, and sinful, while the countryside seemed to evoke purity and morality.

The city, meanwhile, grew in importance by 1840 – not only established Eastern cities like New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, but “western” cities like Pittsburgh, Detroit, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, which became regional manufacturing and financial centers. Though Western migration initially hurt Eastern farms, it also helped agriculture because it opened new lands for cultivation. Also, agriculture gained from industry because the latter provided farm implements and improved transportation (steamboats, canals, and railroads), helping Western farmers ship their goods to Eastern markets more quickly and efficiently.

However, farmers by 1840 came to resent manufacturers’ affluence, which rose during the 1820s and 1830s beyond what even the most prosperous farmers were earning. This was partly because landless farmers and farm laborers did not share in the new wealth. Also, American agriculture was divided by slavery; free Northern and Midwestern farmers came to oppose Southern planters’ political influence and aims to expand westward, while planters were increasingly isolated from the industrial-agricultural alliance which formed in the North (Wikipedia, “United States History”).

On the whole, American industry and agriculture had a decidedly mixed relationship between 1789 and 1840. Agriculture and industry helped each other by providing necessary goods, but they vied for political influence, which generally leaned toward industry. Also, agriculture was divided between dependence on slavery and free labor, diminishing agriculture’s social and political unity and thus diminishing whatever political influence it could have attained.

The relationship between industry and agriculture was often contentious, but their interdependence was very definite and solid by 1840.

SOURCES

Anonymous. “Alexander Hamilton. ” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 11 July 2005. <http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton>. “History of the United States (1789-1849). ” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 11 July 2005. < http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States_%281789-1849%29>.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with MyStudyWriters
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Human Resources Management (HRM)
excellent
Customer 452773, June 25th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
excellent job thank you Your Score 166.25/ 175- A 1. Current Culture 15% of total grade 18.37 Criterion "1. Current Culture" has textual feedback Criterion Feedback I see interesting points, though, in general they are not about the culture.
Customer 452773, June 4th, 2023
Business and administrative studies
great job as always
Customer 452773, February 26th, 2023
ACC/543: Managerial Accounting & Legal Aspects Of Business
EXCELLENT JOB
Customer 452773, January 10th, 2024
Social Work and Human Services
Although it took 2 revisions I am satisfied but I did receive it late because of that.
Customer 452603, March 25th, 2021
History
Looks great and appreciate the help.
Customer 452675, April 26th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
excellent
Customer 452773, July 11th, 2023
Criminal Justice
This has been the greatest help while I am recovering from an illness. Thank your team so much.
Customer 452671, May 2nd, 2021
Business and administrative studies
excellent work
Customer 452773, March 12th, 2023
Data 564
excellent work
Customer 452773, April 11th, 2024
Business and administrative studies
always perfect work and always completed early
Customer 452773, February 21st, 2023
LEADERSHIP
excellent job
Customer 452773, August 12th, 2023
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Close

Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own

Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;

  • Dissertations and Thesis
  • Essays
  • All Assignments

  • Research papers
  • Terms Papers
  • Online Classes
Live ChatWhatsApp