Fighting a Global Pandemic AstraZeneca is a global biopharmaceutical company headquartered in…

Fighting a Global Pandemic AstraZeneca is a global biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Cambridge, England, with revenues of $26.6 billion (2020).

CHALLEGE: The challenge was: “From Lab to Jab at Light Speed”. As COVID-19 spread throughout the world in the spring of 2020, AstraZeneca recognised the need for an effective COVID-19 vaccine to defeat the virus. In April 2020 AstraZeneca joined forces with the University of Oxford to make a meaningful difference and save lives. This landmark partnership brought together world-class expertise in vaccinology with AstraZeneca’s ability to deliver a global solution at scale. AstraZeneca’s research partners at Oxford University had demonstrated an immune response in preclinical studies and some encouraging early clinical results that provided a basis for confidence that a vaccine could be rapidly developed. AstraZeneca’s proven manufacturing capability and global supply chain would enable rapid progress from the research lab to the development of a highly effective vaccine, with a favourable safety profile that could be administered around the world. AstraZeneca and Oxford University pledged to provide the vaccine on a not-for-profit basis. This commitment to broad and equitable access ensured that the vaccine would be available at cost during the pandemic, and accessible to low-income countries after the pandemic subsides. To be successful, however, AstraZeneca would have to make every dollar count. Key Results: As of July 2021, AstraZeneca has released 1 billion doses for supply to 170 countries.

CONTEXT: Risk, Complexity, and Visibility From the moment AstraZeneca publicly announced a vaccine partnership with Oxford University on April 30, 2020, the process it undertook was unlike that for any other technology it had developed in the past, with vastly more uncertainty, complexity, and visibility. Risk The uncertainties and reputation risks inherent in the vaccine project were significant. The need for speed demanded large, simultaneous investments in the Phase 3 clinical programme for emergency use authorisation by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as the setup of manufacturing capacity around the globe. These investments typically would have taken place after years of work and risk mitigation rather than within weeks of seeing initial clinical results in Phase 2. The company had to dedicate resources and top talent to the project without compromising the rest of its portfolio. It was keenly aware of the reputational risk associated with delivering a vaccine on a global scale at unprecedented speed. The risk management process would also require close, frequent contact between project and senior leadership teams. Complexity The need to move quickly drove the project’s complexity. Due to the accelerated timeline of the vaccine project, AstraZeneca had to manage clinical trials while simultaneously ramping up manufacturing capacity. The project’s complexity also increased with every new customer. The primary customers were governments seeking to immunise their populations, and each government brought its own regulatory requirements and compliance framework to the table, adding to the contracting and compliance challenge.

Visibility The global need for the vaccine gave this project a prominence unlike any other for drug development—there were universal pressures. “It’s a fishbowl to the nth degree to be on a project like this, where you literally have presidents of governments calling and asking, ‘When am I getting my vaccines?’” said Colleen Dixon, Head of Biopharmaceutical Project Management. “We were working out loud on a global scale.” PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Building from the Ground Up As AstraZeneca’s Global Project and Portfolio Management function prepared to undertake the project, it quickly identified three gaps: 1) internal project managers experienced in vaccine development, 2) project management processes fit for moving at the speed the vaccine project required, and 3) an internal government contracting organisation that could support the project. Before addressing these gaps, though, it needed the project management infrastructure necessary to address the unique challenges of this project. Establishing a PMO The first step was to create a project management office (PMO). Prior to COVID, the AstraZeneca R&D unit did not have a PMO because the types of projects it managed did not require the capabilities of a dedicated office. The vaccine project was a different story. Given the time pressure, Dixon’s team prioritised four key roles for the PMO: 1) Integration of schedule and budget. This included adapting the enterprise system to support billing for a US government contract and setting up cost codes for time entry. 2) Contract management. This provided a centralised resource for team members and functional owners who needed to understand the relevant terms and conditions of contracts with different governments and entities. 3) Team process guidance. The PMO developed guidance and training for team members on ways of working on various government contracts, including considerations ranging from time entry to client confidentiality. 4) Risk management. This enabled the team to understand and manage key risks to the project and the business. Staffing the Project The next challenge was to staff the PMO. Hiring externally would have taken time that the project didn’t have, so Dixon started her search internally, looking for people within her existing team of 80 project managers, as well as people outside the team with relevant experience in their careers. Drawing on her knowledge of their backgrounds and on feedback from others across the company, Dixon staffed the vaccine team with people who had worked on government contracts or vaccine projects in the past. One person, for example, had worked for a company that helped other drug manufacturers secure government contracts, and another had worked on government contracts for a company AstraZeneca had acquired. “The PMO put the structure and resources in place to allow the technical teams to focus on the deliverables in the midst of great complexity, a pandemic and under extreme pressure.” – Tonya Viillafana, Infection Global Franchise Head But one critical capability that Dixon couldn’t find internally was project management experience in both vaccine development and government contracting. So, she decided to hire from the outside, and with the cooperation of HR, was able to onboard a new project manager in a week, despite the challenges of recruiting during the pandemic. Focusing the Project Manager’s Role Dixon hired Tina Guina, who previously had worked at the US government’s Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), to serve as the lead R&D global project manager for the vaccine project. The project manager, however, would have to play a different role than in a typical AstraZeneca R&D project. On those projects, the project manager would often serve as a relationship manager with the external partner or customer, negotiating the contract with support from the project staff while also managing the project. But the vaccine project was too big, complex, and risky for the project manager to have such a broad role. The US government contract alone was so big that the responsibilities had to be divided. The newly created PMO proved invaluable for easing the project manager’s responsibilities in contract management, schedule and budget integration, compliance, and risk management, enabling her to focus primarily on the efforts of the project team. Scaling to Meet Government Requirements Working with government contracts of this size and scope called for project management deliverables that were not standard practice for AstraZeneca R&D projects. A typical drug project schedule might track a few hundred tasks, with responsibility delegated to sub-teams to manage at greater levels of detail. Contracts of this size and scope required a master schedule, which in turn demanded bringing in a person with this experience to kickstart the process. The budgeting process was similarly unfamiliar: most R&D project budgets were developed at a high level from the top down. Government contracts often require a bottom-up approach with significantly more detail. The answer was to establish the government contract management function within the PMO. “It was essential to have a separate office that could enable the focus on contract deliverables rather than running the project and managing the team, because it really takes a different mindset,” said Guina. Having so many government clients also meant satisfying stringent regulatory requirements across multiple jurisdictions. While the project adapted for speed where it could, the one area in which it could not cut corners was quality in either the clinical trials or manufacturing. “We had to achieve this using all our standards of quality and complying with our quality systems and satisfying regulatory bodies around the world,” said Dixon. “We underwent that intense scrutiny at light speed.” LESSON LEARNED: Adapt, Adapt, Adapt Adaptability was the core project management challenge. At every step, the project faced changing circumstances as governments across the globe lined up to become customers. For example, the US government initially planned to issue the contract through BARDA, but given the sheer size of the agreement, elected to move the contract to the Department of Defence (DOD), which had significantly more experience with procurements of this size. “It was essential to have a separate office that could enable the focus on contract deliverables rather than running the project and managing the team, because it really takes a different mindset.” – Tina Guina “We had to totally rework a different contract with a different group of people,” Dixon said. “It was ultimately a good switch because of the DOD’s capabilities, but it was hard to be in the middle of the negotiation and have to start over.” As the project acquired increasing numbers of government customers, it also had to secure agreements with contract manufacturing organisations (CMOs) in various geographies to ensure that it would have the necessary production capability. There was no time for hesitation since other vaccine projects would be seeking manufacturing capacity as well. “We were grabbing CMOs as best we could,” said Guina. “Under this immense pressure, the speed was incredible.” While the team worked 24/7, its commitment to the mission, which was shared throughout the company, served as an essential motivator. But knowing when to adapt was important too. “There’s also a fine line between how much adaptability there should be, how much adaptability is actually feasible, and deciding when it’s ok to let go,” said Guina. “It’s the goal for the project manager to know when to push, when to pull, when to work offline with somebody, and when to try to pull a team together to discuss things. To manage things appropriately without a breakdown is a question mark every day.”

QUESTION TWO [20]
Pricing decisions for a project must be derived in an orderly and effective manner. In addition, specific pricing strategies must be developed for each individual project situation.
With reference to these statements, critically discuss the two types of global pricing strategies clearly showing the differences in their application.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with My Study Writers
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
English 101
Thank you for this excellent analysis of the Alchemist.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
I finished the first deliverable of a project presentation but had no time to finish my second deliverable. The writer revamped my first deliverable and made it much more appealing! Not only was I impressed with the content but I was so grateful for the time they took to redo the background. I have been under a lot of pressure at work and at home so this has been a great service when I have had little time! I appreciate the detail and help! Always on time and always exceeding expectations!
Customer 453077, April 5th, 2022
Other
I am beyond eager to write this review for this writer. I received a grade of "Mastered"upon first submission on this assignment. I will shout to the rooftops ENCOURAGING you to hire him. I have used other writers but NONE have delivered such awesome work as this writer and NONE of their prices can compare to his. He does not try to "break the bank" and he works hard; it shows in the final paper and the grade. He is simply,THE BEST HERE!!
Customer 452995, November 16th, 2021
Social Work and Human Services
Great work I would love to continue working with this writer thought out the 11 week course.
Customer 452667, May 30th, 2021
Nursing
Paper much better compared to the one prior revision request. References need to be no more than the past 5 years.
Customer 452547, July 20th, 2021
Business Studies
Thank you so much! I had to take my dog to the ER and had no time for the assignment. I really appreciate your help! I can't thank you enough! I really appreciate the work and integrity put into it. Thank you for taking it seriously and not bullshiting the paper.
Customer 452815, July 26th, 2021
Business Studies
Paper is great. Just only needed the one reference. Thank you
Customer 453139, May 4th, 2022
Social Sciences
Very fast report with excellent information on the topic. Thank you for your speedy service in such a short time.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
Classic English Literature
It was my first time using such a service. Essay was good and nicely formatted.
Customer 452441, February 16th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
My son and I have been sick for two weeks, of course at the end of my semester. I am so grateful that myhomeworkgeeks were able to help! Both papers got A's and I couldn't be more thrilled! Thank you so much and don't forget to tip your writer!
Customer 453077, February 22nd, 2022
Health Care
awesome work
Customer 452777, October 14th, 2021
Literature
Thank you!
Customer 453145, April 19th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp