Determine whether the arguments below are logically valid or not valid. For those that are not…
Determine whether the arguments below are logically valid or not valid. For those that are not valid, determine whether the argument is most likely deductive or inductive. (Explain your answers briefly.)
(a) Mammals are warm-blooded creatures, and all whales are mammals. Therefore, all whales are warm-blooded creatures.
(b) Billions of men around the world shave every day. So we can be certain that, somewhere in the world, some man is shaving right now.
(c) Many scientific studies of the lowland gorilla have been carried out and none of them have found any cases of aggressive behavior. So we can safely conclude that lowland gorillas are not aggressive.
(d) If Pluto is a planet, then it rotates on its axis. But Pluto is not a planet. So it does not rotate on its axis.
(e) Of course, there’s a God. It is very hard to see how the universe could have begun by chance, and, besides, more and more physicists are also coming to this conclusion because of what they’re finding out about the Big Bang.
(f) All pleasurable things are good, so all good things must be pleasurable.
(g) All planets orbit the sun. Some planets have rings. Therefore, some things that orbit the sun have rings.
(h) The sun is smaller than the earth and the earth is smaller than the moon. So the sun is smaller than the moon.