1301 Examination #4A -Define / explain the philosophical subject: ‘Epistemology’: True / False TRUE or FALSE: Rene Descartes held that the fundamental truth that he could know with certainty was cogi

1301 Examination #4A

-Define / explain the philosophical subject: ‘Epistemology’:

True / False 

TRUE or FALSE: Rene Descartes held that the fundamental truth that he could know with certainty was cogito ergo sum.

TRUE or FALSE: Rene Descartes held that the fundamental truth that he could know with certainty was tabula rasa.

TRUE or FALSE: Rene Descartes rejected the usefulness of doubt as a part of the philosophical method.

TRUE or FALSE: David Hume s was a ‘rationalist’ in his epistemology and is acknowledged to be “the Father of Modern Philosophy.”

TRUE or FALSE: Rene Descartes thought that proper philosophical method/epistemology and produces beliefs that are certain /are true with logical certainty.

TRUE or FALSE: Rene Descartes’ claim that unless we are certain of a belief we do not really ‘know’ what we believe led to an unintended result of skepticism for many.

TRUE or FALSE: David Hume was an ‘empiricist’ philosopher and held that all knowledge is based upon sense perceptions of the world.

TRUE or FALSE: David Hume denied that belief in ‘cause-effect relations’ is grounded in perceptions – and held that such belief was merely a matter of mental ‘habit.’

TRUE or FALSE: David Hume’s denial of knowledge of cause-effect relations led to skepticism on the part of many.

TRUE or FALSE: Immanuel Kant held that we must have both concepts and perceptions/experiences to have knowledge.

TRUE or FALSE: Immanuel Kant sought to create an account of knowledge that would combine necessary elements of both rationalist and empiricist traditions in epistemology.

TRUE or FALSE: Immanuel Kant’ like Descartes and Hume, held that the mindis passive in the knowing process.

TRUE or FALSE: Immanuel Kant held that the world makes it contribution toknowledge by means of ‘perceptions.’

TRUE or FALSE: Immanuel Kant held that the mind makes its contribution to knowledge means of its concepts/categories of understanding.

TRUE or FALSE: Immanuel Kant held that we can know noumena (the noumenal world) and not merely phenomena (the phenomenal world).

Multiple Choice 

1. Characteristics of the rationalist tradition in epistemology include:

A. knowing is “outside-in”

B. knowing is “inside out”

C. mind is seen as a tabula rasa

D. the existence of innate ideas is affirmed

E. probability is the standard for ‘knowledge’

F. A and C and E

G. B and D and E

H. B and D

2. Characteristics of the empiricist tradition in epistemology include:

A. knowing is “outside-in”

B. knowing is “inside-out”

C. mind is seen as a tabula rasa

D. the existence of innate ideas is affirmed

E. certainty is the standard of knowledge

F. A and C and E

G. A and C

H. D and E

PHIL 1301 Exam #4B 

-Define & Explain: the philosophical subject: ‘Philosophy of Religion’:

True/False

TRUE or FALSE: The existence or non-existence of God has an important impact, positively or negatively, upon one’s view regarding the ultimate meaning or purpose of the universe and of human existence.

TRUE or FALSE: Thinking rationally and critically about religious beliefs is not that important because religious beliefs do not affect other beliefs that one holds.

TRUE or FALSE: ‘Perfect Being Theism’ has rejected the view that God is ‘personal’ – since such a claim is “inadmissible anthropomorphism” and demeans the perfection of God.

TRUE or FALSE: Perfect Being Theism affirms that God is the ‘creator’ of the universe.

TRUE or FALSE: Perfect Being theology affirms that God is “all-knowing” or ‘omniscient.’

TRUE or FALSE: Perfect Being theology affirms that God is an “all-powerful” or ‘omnipotent.’

TRUE or FALSE: Perfect Being theology affirms that God is “perfectly good” or ‘omnifabulous.’

TRUE or FALSE: An ‘Agnostic Atheist’ or ‘Traditional Agnostic’ affirms: “I believe ‘God does not exist.”

TRUE or FALSE: A ‘Theist’ affirms “I believe God exists” and an ‘Atheist’ affirms “I believe God does not exist.”

TRUE or FALSE: An ‘Agnostic Theist’ accepts-affirms that God’s existence of God exists even though there is not enough evidence to believe/make it probable that God exists.

Multiple Choice

1. The ‘basic idea’ of the ‘Evidential Argument from Evil’ is:

A. The existence of evils in the world makes the existence of God improbable.

B. The existence of evils in the world is important evidence in deciding thequestion: “Does God exist?”

C. Asking for evidence to support belief in God is evil.

D. Claiming that evidence supports belief in God is evil.

E. A and B

F. A and D

2. The ‘theodicy’ that holds that God allows evils to occur because this world has a “soul-making” purpose is:

A. The Augustinian theodicy

B. The Irenaean theodicy

C. The Leibnizian theodicy

D. The Sartrean theodicy

E. None of the above

3. The ‘Argument from Evil’ that God does not exist assumes:

A. ‘God’ is all-powerful

B. ‘God’ is all-knowing

C. ‘God is Perfectly good

D. evils happen

E. the existence of evil is evidence that ‘God’ does not exist 

F. All of the above

4. Possible ‘Faith – Reason’ relationships include:

A. Affirm reason -reject faith

B. Affirm faith–reject reason

C. Give priority to reason – but embrace faith also

D. Give priority to faith – but embrace reason also

E. Experience an ongoing tension ‘tension’ between faith and reason

F. All of the above

G. A and B only

5. Arguments in favor of the existence of God may appeal to ‘wonder’ concerning:

A. The existence of the universe – and what explains its existence

B. The experience of apparent ‘design’ of the universe – and what explains it

C. The existence of religious experiences – and what explains them

D. The existence of moral obligation – and what explains the moral obligation

E. The existence of atheists – and why they bother to deny God’s existence

F. A and B

G. All of the above

H. All except E

6. The ‘Evidentialist Objection’ to believe in the existence of God:

A. Objects to using evidence to argue that God exists

B. Affirms that belief in God should be based upon ‘sufficient evidence’

C. Asserts that there is NOT sufficient evidence to justify belief in the existence of God

D. prompts the question of what constitutes ‘evidence’

E. prompts the question of how much evidence would be ‘sufficient’

F. all of the above

G. B and C only

H. B and C and D and E

-What is the philosophical subject: ‘Ethics’?

1. In Ethics, an action may be judged and categorized as:

A. Morally required

B. Morally prohibited

C. Morally permissible

D. Morally supererogatory

E. All of the above

2. We have moral codes and we need to engage in ethical reflection because:

A. Dr. Whitten says so!

B. Our actions have the capacity to harm others

C. Our actions have the capacity to benefit others

D. We want to avoid personal responsibility for our actions

E. We want to confer responsibility for our actions upon others

F. B and C

G. D and E

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